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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 156-159

Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students


1 Department of Psychiatry, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Physiology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Venkata Venu Gopala Raju Srijampana
Department of Physiology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur - 522 019, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.140932

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  Abstract 

Background: In the modern era because of the poor coping mechanisms of stress, every individual has ample chance of developing one or other psychiatric manifestations in their lifetime. Prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicides were increasing, particularly among medical students.
Aims: This study was aimed to improve the knowledge of psychiatric manifestations and to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in medical students.
Materials and Methods: A cross-section study was conducted in medical students (n = 100) to assess their psychiatric status. Medical students aged between 18 and 24 years were selected randomly and explained about the study. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used to assess psychiatric status of the medical students.
Results: In our study, 34% of the subjects were having major psychiatric manifestations observed were social phobia (13%) and agoraphobia (10%). Both generalized anxiety disorders and hypomanic episodes were observed in 7% of the subjects. Panic disorder with social phobia and social phobia with agoraphobia were observed in 2% of the subjects.
Conclusion: Implicating knowledge about the common psychiatric manifestations among medical students will lead to the early presentation of the suffering people to clinician, to get proper treatment of their illness and improve the quality-of-life.

Keywords: Agoraphobia, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, medical students, psychiatric manifestations


How to cite this article:
Endreddy AR, Srijampana VG, Prabhath K. Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2014;3:156-9

How to cite this URL:
Endreddy AR, Srijampana VG, Prabhath K. Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Apr 2];3:156-9. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2014/3/3/156/140932


  Introduction Top


In the modern era because of the poor coping mechanisms of stress, every individual has ample chance of developing one or other psychiatric manifestations in their lifetime. [1] Some of them are self-limiting and not causing much disturbance in life. Other disorders can cause significant impairment in social, occupational, and functional domains. Every year rates of psychiatric illness and suicides are increasing, particularly before the examinations among medical students. [2],[3],[4] Comorbidity is common in many psychiatric disorders, like patients with chronic obsessive compulsive disorder will develop depression in the course of their illness.

Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria to be diagnosed at some point in their life. [5] The World Health Organization reported in 2001 that about 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder or brain condition and that one in four people meet criteria at some point in their life.

As the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity is increasing day by day, this study was aimed to improve the knowledge of psychiatric manifestations and to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in medical students.


  MaterialS and Methods Top


A cross-section study was conducted in medical students (n = 100) to assess their psychiatric status. Students aged between 18 and 24 years were selected randomly and explained about the study. Meticulous care was taken to prevent guarded responses from students because of stigma toward psychiatric illness. Informed consent was taken from all the students. The study was conducted during the period from June to August 2013.

Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. English version 5.0.0, Copyright 1992-2006, Sheehan DV and Lecurbier Y) was used to assess psychiatric status of the medical students.

Mini international neuropsychiatric interview

The M.I.N.I. was designed as a brief structured interview for the major Axis I psychiatric disorders in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The M.I.N.I. has acceptably high validation and reliability scores and can be administered in a much shorter period of time.

In order to keep the interview as brief as possible, M.I.N.I. was designed with 16 modules structured with very precise questions about psychological problems, which require "Yes or No" answer. Each student was encouraged to ask for clarification on any question that is not absolutely clear. The students were asked for examples when necessary, to ensure accurate coding.

Several studies were conducted by using M.I.N.I. around the world, to validate its reliability. [6] M.I.N.I. was used routinely in research settings, but not used frequently in clinical settings. [7]


  Results Top


In this study, mean age of the subjects was 21.04 years [Table 1]. Mean duration of the interview was 15 min 40 s.
Table 1: Age And Sex Distribution of The Subjects

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In our study, 66% of the subjects were completely free of psychiatric manifestations and 34% of the subjects were having psychiatric manifestations, ranging from one to four [Table 2].
Table 2: Distribution of Psychiatric Manifestations


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Major psychiatric manifestations observed were social phobia (13%) and agoraphobia (10%). social phobia was observed in a high proportion with males (29.41%), when compared to females (0.04%). Both generalized anxiety disorder and hypomanic episode were observed in 7% of the subjects [Table 3]. Panic disorder with social phobia and social phobia with agoraphobia were observed in 2% of the subjects.

Psychiatric manifestations were observed in a high proportion in males (47.05%), when compared to females (27.27%) [Table 4].
Table 3: Sex-Wise Distribution of Psychiatric Manifestations


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Table 4: Male To Female Comparison In Overall Psychiatric Manifestations


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  Discussion Top


In our study, the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations was 34%. Studies carried out by Kessler et al., [8] Baxter et al., [9] Kessler et al., [10] and by James et al., [11] have documented nearly similar prevalence.

Most of the studies had shown prevalence of anxiety spectrum disorders taking the leading positions, in particular predominance of agoraphobia in females and social phobia in males. [12] In our study, social phobia was observed in13% of the subjects and agoraphobia in 10%. Social phobia was observed in a high proportion in males (29.41%), when compared to females (0.04%). Prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder was 7% in our study, which was low when compared to the prevalence documented in the study done by Somers et al. [13]

In our study, major depressive episode was observed in 5% of the subjects, which was lower in comparison with the study done by Kessler et al., [14] but fits into the range 5-17% as documented by Sadock et al., [15] and similar to the prevalence documented in the study done by Ayuso-Mateos et al. [16]

Prevalence of anorexia nervosa was 1% in our study, which was in conformity with the study done by Bulik et al. [17] Prevalence of hypomanic episode in our study, was 7%. Our finding was closely similar to the prevalence documented in the study done by Angst. [18]

In our study, dysthymia was observed in 3% of the subjects, similar proportion was documented in the study by Weissman et al. [19] Obsessive compulsive disorder was observed in 5% of the subjects, in our study. This finding was higher than the prevalence reported in studies by Karno et al., [20] and Bebbington. [21]

Limitations of the study includes

(i) Small sample size, (ii) study was conducted in medical students only; hence, the findings may vary among the general population.


  Conclusion Top


Overall prevalence rates of various psychiatric manifestations in our study were in accordance to other prevalence studies. Through this study, we tried to bring the knowledge of various psychiatric problems among medical students and hence that they can present early to treatment and improve their quality-of-life.

Similar studies in various groups of the population will improve knowledge and awareness of common psychiatric manifestations.


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors would like to thank Dr. Sita Mahalakshmi A., Senior Resident in Psychiatry, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, for her support in counseling the students.

 
  References Top

1.Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:593-602.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Dickstein LJ, Stephenson JJ, Hinz LD. Psychiatric impairment in medical students. Acad Med 1990;65:588-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Lloyd C, Gartrell NK. Psychiatric symptoms in medical students. Compr Psychiatry 1984;25:552-65.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Lloyd C, Musser LA. Psychiatric symptoms in dental students. J Nerv Ment Dis 1989;177:61-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Bull World Health Organ 2000;78:413-26.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Muramatsu K, Miyaoka H, Kamijima K, Muramatsu Y, Yoshida M, Otsubo T, et al. The patient health questionnaire, Japanese version: Validity according to the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview-plus. Psychol Rep 2007;101:952-60.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59 Suppl 20:22-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:8-19.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Baxter J, Kingi TK, Tapsell R, Durie M, McGee MA, New Zealand Mental Health Survey Research Team. Prevalence of mental disorders among Mâori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006;40:914-23.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Kessler RC, Matthias A, Bedirhan UT. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. JAMA 2004;291:2581.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.James EB, Jane AB, Thomas EO, Paul DG. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a primary care practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45: 1100-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry. 10 th ed. New Delhi: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 597-604.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Somers JM, Goldner EM, Waraich P, Hsu L. Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Can J Psychiatry 2006;51:100-13.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 2003;289:3095-105.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Pedro R. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9 th ed. New Delhi: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 1645-53.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ayuso-Mateos JL, Vázquez-Barquero JL, Dowrick C, Lehtinen V, Dalgard OS, Casey P, et al. Depressive disorders in Europe: Prevalence figures from the ODIN study. Br J Psychiatry 2001;179:308-16.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Tozzi F, Furberg H, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen NL. Prevalence, heritability, and prospective risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:305-12.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Angst J. The emerging epidemiology of hypomania and bipolar II disorder. J Affect Disord 1998;50:143-51.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Weissman MM, Leaf PJ, Bruce ML, Florio L. The epidemiology of dysthymia in five communities: Rates, risks, comorbidity, and treatment. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:815-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Karno M, Golding JM, Sorenson SB, Burnam MA. The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in five US communities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:1094-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Bebbington PE. Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1998;35:2-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
MaterialS and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
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