|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 156-159
Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students
Ananda Reddy Endreddy1, Venkata Venu Gopala Raju Srijampana2, Konathala Prabhath1
1 Department of Psychiatry, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Physiology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Sep-2014|
Venkata Venu Gopala Raju Srijampana
Department of Physiology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur - 522 019, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: In the modern era because of the poor coping mechanisms of stress, every individual has ample chance of developing one or other psychiatric manifestations in their lifetime. Prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicides were increasing, particularly among medical students.
Aims: This study was aimed to improve the knowledge of psychiatric manifestations and to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in medical students.
Materials and Methods: A cross-section study was conducted in medical students (n = 100) to assess their psychiatric status. Medical students aged between 18 and 24 years were selected randomly and explained about the study. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used to assess psychiatric status of the medical students.
Results: In our study, 34% of the subjects were having major psychiatric manifestations observed were social phobia (13%) and agoraphobia (10%). Both generalized anxiety disorders and hypomanic episodes were observed in 7% of the subjects. Panic disorder with social phobia and social phobia with agoraphobia were observed in 2% of the subjects.
Conclusion: Implicating knowledge about the common psychiatric manifestations among medical students will lead to the early presentation of the suffering people to clinician, to get proper treatment of their illness and improve the quality-of-life.
Keywords: Agoraphobia, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, medical students, psychiatric manifestations
|How to cite this article:|
Endreddy AR, Srijampana VG, Prabhath K. Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2014;3:156-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Endreddy AR, Srijampana VG, Prabhath K. Prevalence of psychiatric manifestations among medical students. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Apr 2];3:156-9. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2014/3/3/156/140932
| Introduction|| |
In the modern era because of the poor coping mechanisms of stress, every individual has ample chance of developing one or other psychiatric manifestations in their lifetime.  Some of them are self-limiting and not causing much disturbance in life. Other disorders can cause significant impairment in social, occupational, and functional domains. Every year rates of psychiatric illness and suicides are increasing, particularly before the examinations among medical students. ,, Comorbidity is common in many psychiatric disorders, like patients with chronic obsessive compulsive disorder will develop depression in the course of their illness.
Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria to be diagnosed at some point in their life.  The World Health Organization reported in 2001 that about 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder or brain condition and that one in four people meet criteria at some point in their life.
As the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity is increasing day by day, this study was aimed to improve the knowledge of psychiatric manifestations and to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations in medical students.
| MaterialS and Methods|| |
A cross-section study was conducted in medical students (n = 100) to assess their psychiatric status. Students aged between 18 and 24 years were selected randomly and explained about the study. Meticulous care was taken to prevent guarded responses from students because of stigma toward psychiatric illness. Informed consent was taken from all the students. The study was conducted during the period from June to August 2013.
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. English version 5.0.0, Copyright 1992-2006, Sheehan DV and Lecurbier Y) was used to assess psychiatric status of the medical students.
Mini international neuropsychiatric interview
The M.I.N.I. was designed as a brief structured interview for the major Axis I psychiatric disorders in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The M.I.N.I. has acceptably high validation and reliability scores and can be administered in a much shorter period of time.
In order to keep the interview as brief as possible, M.I.N.I. was designed with 16 modules structured with very precise questions about psychological problems, which require "Yes or No" answer. Each student was encouraged to ask for clarification on any question that is not absolutely clear. The students were asked for examples when necessary, to ensure accurate coding.
Several studies were conducted by using M.I.N.I. around the world, to validate its reliability.  M.I.N.I. was used routinely in research settings, but not used frequently in clinical settings. 
| Results|| |
In this study, mean age of the subjects was 21.04 years [Table 1]. Mean duration of the interview was 15 min 40 s.
In our study, 66% of the subjects were completely free of psychiatric manifestations and 34% of the subjects were having psychiatric manifestations, ranging from one to four [Table 2].
Major psychiatric manifestations observed were social phobia (13%) and agoraphobia (10%). social phobia was observed in a high proportion with males (29.41%), when compared to females (0.04%). Both generalized anxiety disorder and hypomanic episode were observed in 7% of the subjects [Table 3]. Panic disorder with social phobia and social phobia with agoraphobia were observed in 2% of the subjects.
Psychiatric manifestations were observed in a high proportion in males (47.05%), when compared to females (27.27%) [Table 4].
|Table 4: Male To Female Comparison In Overall Psychiatric Manifestations|
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| Discussion|| |
In our study, the prevalence of psychiatric manifestations was 34%. Studies carried out by Kessler et al.,  Baxter et al.,  Kessler et al.,  and by James et al.,  have documented nearly similar prevalence.
Most of the studies had shown prevalence of anxiety spectrum disorders taking the leading positions, in particular predominance of agoraphobia in females and social phobia in males.  In our study, social phobia was observed in13% of the subjects and agoraphobia in 10%. Social phobia was observed in a high proportion in males (29.41%), when compared to females (0.04%). Prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder was 7% in our study, which was low when compared to the prevalence documented in the study done by Somers et al. 
In our study, major depressive episode was observed in 5% of the subjects, which was lower in comparison with the study done by Kessler et al.,  but fits into the range 5-17% as documented by Sadock et al.,  and similar to the prevalence documented in the study done by Ayuso-Mateos et al. 
Prevalence of anorexia nervosa was 1% in our study, which was in conformity with the study done by Bulik et al.  Prevalence of hypomanic episode in our study, was 7%. Our finding was closely similar to the prevalence documented in the study done by Angst. 
In our study, dysthymia was observed in 3% of the subjects, similar proportion was documented in the study by Weissman et al.  Obsessive compulsive disorder was observed in 5% of the subjects, in our study. This finding was higher than the prevalence reported in studies by Karno et al.,  and Bebbington. 
Limitations of the study includes
(i) Small sample size, (ii) study was conducted in medical students only; hence, the findings may vary among the general population.
| Conclusion|| |
Overall prevalence rates of various psychiatric manifestations in our study were in accordance to other prevalence studies. Through this study, we tried to bring the knowledge of various psychiatric problems among medical students and hence that they can present early to treatment and improve their quality-of-life.
Similar studies in various groups of the population will improve knowledge and awareness of common psychiatric manifestations.
| Acknowledgments|| |
The authors would like to thank Dr. Sita Mahalakshmi A., Senior Resident in Psychiatry, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, for her support in counseling the students.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]