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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Oral malodor: A review of etiology and pathogenesis


Department of Oral Pathology, Anil Neerukonda Institute of Dental Sciences, Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. R V Subramanyam
Department of Oral Pathology, Anil Neerukonda Institute of Dental Sciences, Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam 531162, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.153294

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Oral malodor or halitosis is a condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating from the oral cavity. The aim of the present review is to classify and explain the etiology and pathogenesis of oral malodor. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that result from bacterial breakdown of protein are considered to be the main culprits for this foul odor. The etiology of oral malodor can be attributed to both systemic and oral conditions. However, nearly 85% of the cases originate from mouth due to tongue coating (especially posterior third of the dorsal surface), periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene, infections, ulcerations, food debris, dry mouth and faulty restorations. Bad breath can be caused by systemic disorders such as upper and lower respiratory tract infections; hepatic, pancreatic, and nephritic insufficiencies; trimethylaminuria and some medications. In addition, there are very few instances where patients suffer from pseudohalitosis or halitophobia.


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