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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 150-154

A review on cancer incidence in India from 25 population-based cancer registries


1 Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication15-Sep-2015

Correspondence Address:
Smita Asthana
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research, I-7, Sector-39, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: Nil., Conflict of Interest: There are no conflicts of interest.


DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.165397

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  Abstract 

Background and Objective: An overview of the update of cancer incidence summary findings will be of help to researchers and clinicians for quick reference of facts in cancer control. To present an overview of cancer incidence available from the recent population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in India from 2009 to 2011.
Materials and Methods: Data on age-adjusted incidence rates and cumulative risks of cancer at various sites were collected for both sexes for six major cancer sites from the first report of the National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) on 25 PBCRs in India for the years 2009-2011. Site-specific risks in terms of one out of the total number of persons who develop cancer were computed. The summaries, in the form of ranges, are presented in six regions of the country in which the 20 PBCRs are located. The range of age-adjusted rates (AARs) and one out of the number of persons who develop cancer as a lifetime risk in the age of 0-64 years is presented.
Results: In different regions, the highest risks for males for developing cancer in the various major sites studied were as follows: One out of 67 for cancer in the lungs in the Northeast, one out of 27 for cancer in the esophagus in the Northeast, one out of 71 for cancer in the mouth in the western region, one out of 100 cancer in the tongue in the rural western region, one out of 333 for cancer in the prostate in the northern region, and one out of 33 for cancer in the stomach in the northeastern region. The highest risks for the various sites studied were as follows: one out of 36 for cancer in the breast in the south, one out of 59 for cancer in the cervix in the western region, one out of 125 for cancer in the ovary in the northern region, one out of 63 for cancer in the esophagus in the northeastern region, one out of 250 for cancer in the mouth in three regions, and one out of 125 for cancer in the gall bladder in the western and central regions. Overall, for all cancers there is a risk of one out of 8-27 persons and one out of 10-25 persons among males and females, respectively, in the Indian population who are likely to develop cancer of any site in their lifetime during the age of 0-64 years.
Conclusion: Female breast cancer in the southern region and esophagus and stomach cancers among males in the northeast region were of the highest magnitudes.

Keywords: Age-adjusted rate (AAR), age-adjusted incidence rate, cancer incidence, cancer registry, cancer risk, cancer statistics


How to cite this article:
Asthana S, Labani PS, Labani S. A review on cancer incidence in India from 25 population-based cancer registries. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2015;4:150-4

How to cite this URL:
Asthana S, Labani PS, Labani S. A review on cancer incidence in India from 25 population-based cancer registries. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jan 20];4:150-4. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2015/4/3/150/165397


  Introduction Top


Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) collect a complete summary of the patient's history, diagnosis, treatment, and status for every cancer patient in the defined geographical area such as district, state, or country. These are useful for knowledge on cancer burden, etiological studies, and effectiveness of cancer control activities.

An estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths were reported as estimates of worldwide cancer statistics in terms of incidence and mortality in the year 2008 by GLOBOCAN 2008. Of the total global load, 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of cancer deaths occur in the less developed regions of the world. The incidence data for GLOBOCAN were derived from the PBCRs.[1],[2] For the developed countries, these incidence data may cover entire national populations but in developing countries, they cover smaller areas such as only major cities. The National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) periodically publishes cancer statistics from registries and currently, the reports are available in the website of NCRP. The report [3] for the year 2009-2011 is available too. This report is of 25 PBCRs reporting information on cancer incidence and mortality in the community covering 7% of the country's population. Though the coverage is still low, it gives a fair idea of the pattern of cancer incidence emerging in various regions or parts of the country. Full cancer statistics from regionwise registry on all cancer sites in a uniform pattern is available in the NCRP website. There are studies that assessed the reliability and completeness of cancer registration in India.[4],[5] A summary of such recent detailed cancer statistics on major cancer sites is helpful for researchers and clinicians as quick reference for cancer load in the country. In order to have a quick summary on cancer statistics, this study attempts to report an overview of the incidence from the recent NCRP 2009-11 report by highlighting the cancer load for six major sites from 25 cancer registries in treating them as located in five regions of the country.


  Materials and Methods Top


Secondary data from NCRP, India's report on 25 PBCRs were used in this study.[3] Under the banner of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), NCRP brings out comprehensive annual reports containing various data at the population level such as incidence rates and mortality rates. The availability of data in different cities of the country depends on the year a particular registry came under the network of NCRP and or initiation of the registry in a particular area. The main resources for registration of the incidence cases and the type of population covered in various registries were described in the NCRP reports.[3],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] Incidence data on cancers at six major sites among males and females were considered for the summarization of age-adjusted rates (AARs) and cumulative risks in the computation of lifetime risk as the probability of one out of the total number of persons who developed cancer in the lifetime. The ranges of these three summary measures were presented as minimum and maximum for various regions of the country as per the location the registry. The regions are formed and presented by the authors and not by the original NCRP report. We used ranking of cancer incidence rates of the years 2006-2008, as given in the NCRP report,[9] for the selection of the six sites from different registries. The six sites for females were the breast (C50), cervix (C53), mouth (C03-06), esophagus (C15), gall bladder (C23-24), and ovary (C56); for males, the six sites were the lungs (C33-34), tongue (01-02), mouth (C03-06), esophagus (C15), stomach (C-16), and prostate (C61).

One out of the total number of persons who develop cancer was calculated as 100/cumulative risk, where cumulative risk = 100 × [1-exp (-cum.rate/100)] and cumulative rate = [5 × Σ(ASpR) × 100]/100,000; ASpR was the age-specific incidence rate. The age-specific incidence rates of cancer of various sites and the AARs are available in the NCRP reports for every site and registry. The site-specific cumulative rates and cumulative risks are also available from the NCRP reports. The site-specific statistics of one out of the total number of persons developing cancer were computed by us for every registry and presented as ranges in each region. One out of the total number of persons who develop cancer is an easily understandable statistics and used for public health messages. Cumulative risk is the probability that an individual will be diagnosed with cancer during a certain period in the absence of any competing cause of death and the assumption that the current trends will prevail over the time period.[9] The present analysis is part of an intramural ongoing study entitled "Exploration of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP) data and its statistical modeling" of the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO), ICMR. There was, as such, no requirement of ethical approval from the ICPO in the overview of the data sets of ICMR from the public domain.


  Results Top


Age-adjusted incidence rates and one out of the total number of persons who develop cancer at any site during the lifetime of 0-64 years of age are presented for the different regions in [Table 1]. The overall risk of cancer for all the regions ranged 1-8 to 1-27 and one in 10 to one in 25 for males and females, respectively, for all the sites in the lifetime. The highest incidence of cancer at all sites for males was 273 per 100,000 persons and for females, it as 227 per 100000 persons as observed in the northeastern region.
Table 1: Cancer Incidence (All Sites) in Both the Sexes from 25 Pbcrs in India According to the Region of Location of the Various Registries

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The cancer incidence at six major sites for the male population, namely, the lungs, esophagus, mouth, tongue, stomach, and prostate is presented in [Table 2]. Maximum risks for the development of cancer is one out of 27 persons for cancer in the esophagus and one out of 33 persons for cancer in the stomach followed by one out of 67 persons for cancer in the lungs in the eastern region of the country. In different regions, the highest risks among males for developing cancer at the various major sites studied were as follows: 27 for cancer in the esophagus and 67 for cancer in the lungs in the Northeast, 71 for cancer in the mouth in the western region, 100 for cancer in the tongue in the western region, 333 for cancer in the prostate in the southern, northeast, and northern regions and 33 for cancer in the stomach in the northeastern region.
Table 2: Cancer Incidence Among Males (Six Major Sites) from 25 Pbcrs in India According to the Region of Location of the Various Registries

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[Table 3] shows the regionwise risks for six major cancers among females. The highest risk was observed for breast cancer followed by cervical cancer and gall bladder cancer with one out of 35 persons, one out of 61 persons, and one out of 123 persons, respectively. The highest risks among females for developing cancer at the various sites studied were as follows: 35 for cancer in the breast in the south, 61 for cancer in the cervix in the western region, 141 for cancer in the ovary in the northern region, 100 for cancer in the esophagus in the northeastern region, 233 for cancer in the mouth in the southern region, and 123 for cancer in the gall bladder in the northeastern region.
Table 3: Cancer Incidence Among Females (Six Major Sites) from 25 Pbcrs in India According to the Region of Location of the Various Registries

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  Discussion Top


A review of the data of 25 PBCRs on six major sites for males and females separately from different regions of the country has been presented by us. The regions are arbitrary in nature. Though this was a limitation, our aim of regional distribution was not to make a representation of the country. The aim was only to simplify for the purpose of review by avoiding the individual presentation of data of the 25 registries and provide a summary of cancer incidence in India. Delhi is a single registry in the northern region while the northeastern region has a sufficient number of registries. The western region now has seven registries while the southern region has four. The representation of the rural region is still low with two rural registries, one in Barshi and the other in Ahmedabad. As a whole, all the 25 registries have a coverage of only 7.45% of the total country's population. It is practically not possible to have a full coverage for a large country such as India. Efforts of the NCRP to expand the registries further in various parts of the country are in full swing. The current registries present a reasonably fair account of the pattern of cancer in the country. For obtaining the incidence rates for individual sites for any particular registry, the researcher should consult the original source of NCRP report.[3]

NCRP (ICMR) follows uniform data collection procedures. However, there are still reliability issues on the data collected across the registries in different regions through cancer registries under the network. A study from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India [4] stated that for studying the completeness of the data, the indicators "proportion of deaths in period" and "proportion of death certificates only" and the stability of age incidence rates have been utilized. The indicators "proportion of cases registered on histological verification," "proportion of cases where age is not known," "flattening of age incidence curve," and "proportion of other and unspecified neoplasms" can throw some light on the quality of data collected by the registry. There has been a notable improvement in the percentages of histological verification cases and a substantial decrease in the proportion of death certificate alone cases in both the sexes over a period of time. Mortality incidence ratio remained stable over a period of time in both the sexes. On examining the various indices of reliability and completeness of Mumbai cancer registry data,[4] it was concluded that the data collected by this registry were quite complete and reliable. In the present NCRP report,[3] mortality incidence ratio that is an important index of reliability for males and females ranged 11.8-82% and 7.1-73.1% for males and females, respectively. The other measure is that of a good proportion of microscopically verified cases. This for the present report is 61.5-93.9% and 56.4-94.4% for males and females, respectively. This shows a good proportion of microscopically verified cases as compared to the highest 89% in a previous report of NCRP.[9] In an independent survey in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, the completeness of Chennai PBCR was assessed during 1982-1995. It was found that the completeness of cancer registration is 96% and is comparable to that of the other registries in the world. This review aimed at only the incidence data though the report provided data on mortality too. It is concluded from the present overview that the overall risk of developing cancer in either sex is almost equal. Female breast cancer in the southern region and esophagus and stomach cancers among males in the northeast region were of the highest magnitude.

 
  References Top

1.
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127:2893-917.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Estimated Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/cancers/all.asp. [Last accessed on 2013 Sep 24].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Three year report of the population based cancer registries 2009-2011: Report of 25 PBCRs; National Cancer Registry Programme. Bangalore: Indian Council Medical Research; 2013. Available from: http://ncrpindia.org/Reports/PBCR_2009_2011.aspx. [Last accessed on 2013 Sep 24th].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Yeole BB. An assessment of improvement in reliability and completeness of Mumbai cancer registry data from 1964-1997. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2001;2:225-32.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gajalakshmi V, Swaminathan R, Shanta V. An independent survey to assess completeness of registration: Population based cancer registry, Chennai, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2001;2:179-83.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Annual report 1982-89: National Cancer Registry. Indian Council of Medical Research New Delhi. 1985-1992.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Consolidated Report of the Population based cancer Registries 1990-1996: National Cancer Registry Programme. Bangalore: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Two year report of the Population based Cancer Registries 1997-1998. National cancer Registry Programme. Bangalore: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Consolidated Report of the Population based cancer Registries 2001-2004: National Cancer Registry programme. Bangalore: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Three year report of the population based cancer registries 2006-2008:First report of 20 PBCRs; National Cancer Registry Programme. Indian Council Medical Research, Bangalore 2010. Available from: http://ncrpindia.org/Reports/PBCR_2006_2008.aspx. [Last accessed on 2012 Apr 27th].  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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