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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 176-181

A study on association and correlation of lip and finger print pattern analysis for gender identification


1 Department of Oral Pathology, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences, Narketpally, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, C.K.S. Theja Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Dentistry Programme, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies

Date of Web Publication15-Sep-2015

Correspondence Address:
Surapaneni Ratheesh Kumar Nandan
Department of Oral Pathology, C.K.S. Theja Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: Nil., Conflict of Interest: None declared.


DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.165406

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  Abstract 

Background: The lip print pattern is a unique among individuals and thus helps in the identification during the forensic investigation. Lip print analysis in the forensic scene may help in the personal identification. Thus, correlating the lip print with the finger print and gender will create a new room in forensic dentistry investigation.
Aim: This study aims to identify the lip and finger print pattern and to correlate lip and finger print pattern for gender identification.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 students from dental institution were included in this study. Of which, 50 were male and 50 were female.. Their aged range between 18 and 28 years with a mean age of 21.3 years. The physiological rest position of the lip print was recorded by the application of red or dark pink colored lipstick over the lips and the imprint was transferred over a white chart sheet through a transparent tape. The imprint of the finger was taken directly on a white chart sheet. The lip and finger print pattern was examined with magnifying lens. The results were analyzed using SPSS software 19.0 (Armonk, NY, USA) and presented as a descriptive statistics. A correlation of lip print with finger print and gender variation was analyzed by Pearson correlation test.
Results: The study identified higher prevalence of Type II (34%) lip print pattern in the overall study population. In males, Type I lip print (42%) and plain loop finger print pattern (44%) was frequent in the study. In males, the correlation of lip and finger print patter showed weaker correlation and statistically insignificant (P = 0.436). In females, Type II lip print (34%) and plain loop finger print pattern (42%) was frequent in the study. In females, the correlation of the lip and finger print pattern showed weaker correlation with approachable statistical significance (P = 0.083). The correlation of lip and finger print with gender showed weaker correlation and approachable significance (P = 0.07). The association of lip and finger print in the study showed statistically insignificant. However, the association of Type III lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern showed statistical significant association (P = 0.05) by Chi-square analysis.
Conclusion: Lip print analysis is a challenging area in the personal identification during forensic dentistry examination. The study revealed the weaker correlation and approachable significance of lip and finger print pattern in gender identification. Future studies should be encouraged in the direction of software based identification for lip and finger print analysis in gender identification. Such studies may benefit this study pattern in more accurate way.

Keywords: Cheiloscopy, dermatoglyphics, gender, India, lip print


How to cite this article:
Nandan SR, Bandaru BK, Santosh AB, Thankappan P, Chundru NS, Amudala R. A study on association and correlation of lip and finger print pattern analysis for gender identification. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2015;4:176-81

How to cite this URL:
Nandan SR, Bandaru BK, Santosh AB, Thankappan P, Chundru NS, Amudala R. A study on association and correlation of lip and finger print pattern analysis for gender identification. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 25];4:176-81. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2015/4/3/176/165406


  Introduction Top


Personal identification is one of the key areas in the forensic sciences. The forensic dentists are identifying the areas in dental, oral and para oral tissues for personal identification. The personal identification based on the physical evidences that can be visually appreciated is more easily accessible due to the time and economic consideration. The physical appearance of tooth, dentition, or the dental treatment interventions helps to identify the individual to a certain level. Although the dental hard tissues have a comparatively better role in personal identification, the legal aspects require an additional proof and hence a higher level of investigations such as molecular diagnostics techniques is required for confirmation. However, personal identification by physical appearance and visual examination may play a role in adjunct mode rather than confirmatory. One such physical evidence for personal identification in forensic scene is lip print analysis. The external surface of the lip tissue has many elevations and depressions, which forms a characteristic pattern known as lip prints. The examination of lip print pattern is termed as lip print analysis and the study employed is known as "cheiloscopy".[1] The hypothesis of lip print analysis had taken a seed of concept from the finger print analysis, which is termed as "dermatoglyphics." Hence, the approach of lip print analysis is similar with that of finger print analysis. Lip print analysis is considered in forensic dentistry investigation due to the two reasons:

  1. Specific pattern of tissue architecture in the external surface of lips and
  2. The lip print pattern remains the same throughout the life time. Thus, lip pint analysis can be used as a tool in suspect identification.[2]



  Materials and Methods Top


The study comprised of 100 students from dental institution. The study included an equal number of subjects 50 males and 50 female participants of age range between 18 and 28 years. The mean age was 21.3 years. Inclusion criteria for the study were young age group and students to overcome age-related lip pathosis. The students were selected as the study participants for the convenient sample size. The study set the exclusion criteria as individuals with lip scar, lip lesions, lip deformities and persons with known hypersensitivity reaction to lipsticks were excluded from the study. Three staff members and two post graduate students from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were involved in the conducting the study. All the investigators analyzed the lip and finger print pattern following the Tsuchihashi and Michael Kucken classifications [Table 1].[3],[4]
Table 1: Lip and Finger Print Classification

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The physiological rest position of the lip print was recorded by the application of red or dark pink colored lipstick over the lips and the imprint was transferred over a white chart sheet through a transparent tape [Figure 1]. The imprint of the finger was taken directly on a white chart sheet [Figure 2]. The lip and finger print pattern was examined with magnifying lens and interpreted based on the Tsuchihashi and Michael Kucken's classification. The results of the study were analyzed by SPSS software 19.0 (Armonk, NY, USA) and presented as a descriptive statistics. A correlation of lip print and finger print pattern with gender variation was analyzed by Pearson correlation test.
Figure 1: Lip print pattern

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Figure 2: Finger print pattern

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  Results Top


The whole study was done in a span of 6 months, during which 100 students were examined and analyzed for the lip and finger print pattern.

The total study population falls in the age range of 18-28 years with the mean age calculated was 21.3 years. All the study participants were the dental students from the institution.

The lip print pattern examination of the study population identified higher prevalence of Type II (branched) 34% (34/100) lip print pattern. Type I (vertical) lip print 42% (21/50) was the most prevalent lip print among females and Type II (branched) lip print 34% (17/50) among males [Table 2].
Table 2: Frequency Table for Lip Pattern Print with Gender

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The finger print pattern examination of the study population identified higher prevalence of plain loop pattern 43% (43/100). The most prevalent finger print pattern was plain loop pattern in males 44% (22/50) and females 42% (21/50) [Table 3].
Table 3: Frequency Table for Finger Print Pattern with Gender

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The study revealed higher prevalence of Type I lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern in females 21.31% (13/61) and Type II lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern in males 14.75% (9/61). The association of Type III lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern by Chi-square test showed statistical significance (P = 0.05). The Chi-square analysis of [Table 4], shows Chi-square value is 27.205, Yates' Chi-square value 21.45, Yates' P = 0.667, degree of freedom is 25 and P = 0.345 suggesting the association is statistically insignificant [Table 4].
Table 4: Association of Lip Print Pattern with Finger Print Pattern in Gender by Chi-Square Analysis

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The overall correlation of lip and finger print pattern with gender showed r = 0.177 which is weaker correlation under Pearson's correlation analysis and showed P = 0.07, which is approachable significance at the level of 0.01 level (two-tailed) [Table 5].
Table 5: Correlation of Lip and Finger Print Pattern with Gender by Pearson Correlation Analysis

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The overall correlation of lip and finger print pattern in males showed r = 0.113, which is weaker correlation under Pearson's correlation analysis and showed P = 0.436, which is statistically insignificant at the level of 0.01 level (two-tailed) [Table 6].
Table 6: Correlation of Lip With Finger Print Patterns in Male Sex by Pearson Correlation Analysis

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The overall correlation of lip and finger print pattern in females showed r = 0.247, which is weaker correlation under Pearson's correlation analysis and showed P = 0.083, which is approachable significance at the level of 0.01 level (two-tailed) [Table 7].
Table 7: Correlation of Lip with Finger Print Patterns in Female Sex by Pearson Correlation Analysis

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  Discussion Top


The personal identification is one of the key challenging areas of forensic examination procedures. Establishment of personal identification is a cumbersome procedure in the cases of dead remains, disaster management and crime scene. Finger print analysis is the gold standard method for personal identification. Forensic dentistry contributes in the personal identification in various methods such as morphology of teeth, bite mark analysis, dental materials, palatal rugae pattern, jaw bone, lip and dental print and molecular methods more effectively.[5] Comparison of lip and finger print analysis in gender identification is developing area in forensic dentistry research.[6]

The importance of lip print analysis has gained importance as a finger print analysis. The chances of lip print contribution in crime scene detection are equally good with finger print analysis. The lips print/lipstick marks have a chance of persistence over objects obtained in the crime scene. Lip print obtained with persistent and which do not leave a visible smear due to the minimal or no oil content is termed as latent prints.[7] The lip prints may be recorded by agents such as powders of aluminum, magnetic, silver metallic, silver nitrate, carbonate, fat black aniline dye or cobalt oxide. Lysosome dyes such as sudan III, oil red O and sudan black can develop the lip prints that contain lipids.[8] However, aluminium and magnetic powders are considered to be more effective in developing the latent lip prints.[9] Lysochromes are highly useful group of compounds for identifying the latent lip prints.[10]

Based on our literature search from the previously published reports displayed the frequency distribution of the lip print analysis was well recognized in the Indian literature.[11],[12],[13] The studies also reported on the frequency distribution of lip print pattern in males and females.[14] It can be suggested that a various number of studies had been conducted at different geographic location of India on the lip and finger print analysis, however only one study was found in literature to evaluate the association of the lip and finger print pattern in gender identification. Nagasupriya et al. in 2012., first attempted a study to find association of lip and finger print analysis in gender.[6] Our study attempted to determine the frequency of various lip, finger print pattern and their association and correlation in gender identification.

Our study report reveals a higher prevalence of Type II lip print pattern in the overall study population followed by Type I, Mixed type, Type III, and V. Our study results were similar with Gondivkar et al. in 2009., study in Maharashtra population revealed predominant Type II lip print pattern followed by Type III, Type I, Type I', Type IV.[14] Nagasupriya et al. in 2011., institutional study in Bhimavaram showed predominant Type II lip print pattern followed by Type IV and Type I.[6] Kumar et al. in 2012., study in Pondicherry population showed predominant Type II lip print pattern followed by Type IV, Type III, Type I, and Type V.[11]

Our study results suggested a higher prevalence of Type I lip print pattern in females and Type II lip print pattern in males. Shailesh et al. in 2009., identified a higher prevalence of Type III in females and Type II in males of the Maharashtra population.[14] Nagasupriya et al. in 2009., identified a higher prevalence of Type II lip print pattern in males and females in Bhimavaram population.[6] Kumar et al. in 2012., identified a higher prevalence of Type III in males and Type II in females of the Pondicherry population.[11] Sandhu et al. in 2012., identified a higher prevalence of Type I lip print pattern in males and females of the Punjab population.[12]

The present study revealed higher prevalence of association of Type I lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern in females 21.31%, this is followed by Type II of lip print 16.39% with a loop of finger print, Type I of lip print 23.07% with a whorl of finger print pattern in females. In males the higher prevalence of association was found between Type II lip print pattern 14.75% (9/61) with loop finger print pattern, this is followed by Type III lip print 13.11% with loop finger print pattern, Type II lip print 26.92% with whorl finger print pattern in males. The association of Type III lip print pattern with loop finger print pattern was statistically significant (P = 0.05). The overall association of the lip and finger print showed P = 0.345, which is statistically insignificant. Nagasupriya et al., showed higher prevalence of association of Type II lip print pattern with arch finger print pattern in males and the association was highly significant (P = 0.001) followed by loop finger print patter (P = 0.005) and whorl finger print pattern (P = 0.006). In their study females showed Type I lip print with arch finger print pattern (P = 0.009) and the association was high statistical insignificance, followed by Type IV pattern with whorl finger print pattern (P = 0.05).[6]

The overall correlation of lip and finger print pattern with gender showed weaker correlation (r = 0.177) and approachable significance (P = 0.07). The correlation of lip and finger print pattern in males showed weaker correlation (r = 0.113) and statistical insignificance (P = 0.07). The correlation of lip and finger print pattern in females showed weaker correlation (r = 0.247) and approachable statistical significance (P = 0.083). Nagasupriya et al. study showed statistically significant correlation between the lip and finger patterns for gender identification.[6]


  Conclusion Top


Lip print analysis is a challenging area in the personal identification during forensic dentistry examination. The analysis of the lip and finger print are generally made by physical examination by the naked eye evaluation. The chances of inter and intra-observer variability have the chances to bias the study. A more authenticated and computer technology supported software analysis of lip and finger print analysis has to be encouraged in this research area of forensic dentistry. Software based identification of lip and finger print pattern analysis by the future researchers will help to find the association and correlation in gender in more accurately.

 
  References Top

1.
Goonerathne I. Establishing lip print analysis/cheiloscopy in Sri Lanka and it's forensic use. Sri Lanka J Forensic Med Sci Law 2010;1:28-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dwivedi N, Agarwal A, Kashyap B, Raj V, Chandra S. Latent lip print development and its role in suspect identification. J Forensic Dent Sci 2013;5:22-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
3.
Bajpai M, Mishra N, Yadav P, kumar K. Efficacy of lip prints for determination of sex and inter observer variability. Eur J Exp Biol 2011;1:81-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kücken M, Newell AC. Fingerprint formation. J Theor Biol 2005;235:71-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Reddy LV. Lip prints: An overview in forensic dentistry. J Adv Dent Res 2011;2:17-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nagasupriya A, Dhanapal R, Reena K, Saraswathi T, Ramachandran C. Patterns — "A crime solver". J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
7.
Castello A, Alvarez M, Miquel M, Verdu F. Long-lasting lipsticks and latent prints, Forensic Science Communications [online], 2002;4 http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/Apr2002/verd.html.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Caldas IM, Magalhães T, Afonso A. Establishing identity using cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. Forensic Sci Int 2007;165:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Alvarez Segui M, Miquel Feucht M, Castello Ponce A, Verdu Pascual F. Persistent lipsticks and their lip prints: New hidden evidence at the crime scene. Forensic Sci Int 2000;112:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Singh NN, Brave VR, Khanna S. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation. J Forensic Dent Sci 2010;2:11-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
11.
Kumar GS, Vezhavendhan N, Vendhan P. A study of lip prints among Pondicherry population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:84-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
12.
Sandhu SV, Bansal H, Monga P, Bhandari R. Study of lip print pattern in a Punjabi population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:24-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
13.
Venkatesh R, David MP. Cheiloscopy: An aid for personal identification. J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:67-70.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
14.
Gondivkar SM, Indurkar A, Degwekar S, Bhowate R. Cheiloscopy for sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 14
  Medknow Journal  


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

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