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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-106

A study on the incorporation of radiofrequency identification strips in implant and tooth supported over dentures for treatment information and denture identification


Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, SRM Kattankulathur Dental College and Hospital, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication13-Jun-2017

Correspondence Address:
David P Charles
Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, SRM Kattankulathur Dental College and Hospital, Kancheepuram District - 603 203, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JDRNTRUHS.JDRNTRUHS_24_17

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  Abstract 

Aim: To find the efficacy of radiofrequency identification (RFID) strips in reading patient treatment details and as a tool for patient identification.
Materials and Methods: The initial part of the study was done in in-vitro dentures and later in in-vivo conditions in patient dentures. In-vitro testing was done by incorporating RFID strips in 10 nonclinical dentures and the ability of the RFID reader to accurately read the information was checked. In the second part of the study, 35 implant-supported overdenture patients were chosen and RFID strips were incorporated in their dentures after feeding the data. The accuracy of the RFID reader to read the patient details and treatment information was checked after processing and after a period of 6 months.
Results: The in-vitro results revealed 100% accurate reading of the details by the RFID reader. In the clinical study, 35 out of 35 patient details were readable after processing.
Conclusion: RFID can be an effective tool in denture identification and in revealing the patient's previous treatment history, prosthesis type, implant brand, dimensions, and material used which will be very useful in implant therapy.

Keywords: Denture identification, forensic odontology, radiofrequency identification strips, RFID, tooth and implant supported overdentures


How to cite this article:
Charles DP, Nandini VV, Rengasamy S, Kumar M D, Rajendran A. A study on the incorporation of radiofrequency identification strips in implant and tooth supported over dentures for treatment information and denture identification. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2017;6:103-6

How to cite this URL:
Charles DP, Nandini VV, Rengasamy S, Kumar M D, Rajendran A. A study on the incorporation of radiofrequency identification strips in implant and tooth supported over dentures for treatment information and denture identification. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Jul 4];6:103-6. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2017/6/2/103/208007




  Introduction Top


Road traffic accidents, natural disasters like earthquakes, floods necessitate the identification of the person involved. Old age individuals have deteriorating memory and identification of lost dentures can be a problem in old age homes. Denture marking for identification has been used as a method of identification in forensic odontology. It was done by surface methods like embossing, engraving techniques, or inclusion techniques such as denture labelling, barcoding, etc. One of such inclusion method is the use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags.[1],[2],[3]

RFID was introduced in 1940s and during the World War-II when the Nazis used these tags to differentiate their aircrafts from that of their enemies.[4] Later its use was widespread in various fields such as automobile industry and now even in the medical field. The use of RFID-tags in the humans has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Millet and Jeannin introduced it as an identification device in dentistry.[5]

RFID is the wireless use of electromagnetic field to transfer data for identifying and tracking the object on which the RFID tags are placed. It consists of a transponder (chip with antenna), reader, and control software. These RFID-tags respond to the wireless magnetic fields created by the readers which enables in the reading of fed data. Unlike the barcodes these tags does not require to be in line of sight of the readers. Also, it enables us to be read even when the tags are embedded into the objects. RFID-tags can be passive or active. The passive tags have a minute antenna which enables the tags to pick up the signals from the RFID-readers whereas the active tags require a power source.[6]

RFID tags have been used in forensic odontology by incorporating in endodontically treated human teeth and in dentures as well.[6],[7],[8],[9] These can not only be used in identification, but can also provide detailed information about patient treatment history in the future.

The aim of this study was to find the efficacy of RFID readers in accurate detail reading after incorporation of RFID strips into the implant supported overdenture to ease the identification process of these dentures and to extract the most accurate information regarding the type of implant used, dimensions, prosthetic components, and other miscellaneous information about the prosthesis and about patient details. This study was done initially in-vitro and later carried out in patients after it proved effective in, in-vitro conditions. The in-vivo study was conducted in 35 patients in combination with both implant and tooth supported over denture for a period of 6 months and evaluated.


  Materials and Methods Top


In-vitro study

Ten heat polymerized non-clinical dentures, five maxillary, and five mandibular complete dentures were taken. A special Run and Read programme was created under the name of “SRMKDC-research” for the RFID. Under this RUN-WRITE-READ programme, the required information was fed on to the RFID strips (Greenway RFID Manufacturers). The RFID strips of size 5 cm × 1 cm × 1 mm were incorporated in the nonesthetic regions such as lingual of mandibular dentures and distally in the palatal region of maxillary dentures [Figure 1]. The space for the strips was created with a straight fissure bur and finally closed with clear autopolymerizing acrylic resin, finished and polished. The RFID-reader was placed close to the dentures to detect the details [Figure 2]. Once there was a positive result, it was then decided to be carried out in clinical conditions.
Figure 1: Radiofrequency identification strips inside the denture

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Figure 2: Radiofrequency identification Reader

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In-vivo study

The initial inclusion criteria for the in-vivo study was: (1) the patients should be wearing implant or tooth supported over denture; (2) At least one completely edentulous arch; (3) Capacity to understand and help with the procedure. The exclusion criteria were: (1) lack of patient interest to understand the procedure; (2) Lack of proper oral hygiene; (3) Any previous history of oral pathologic conditions.

Informed consent was obtained from the patient's participating in the study after explaining about the procedure. Thirty-five patients were selected and explained about the procedure.

Under the RUN-WRITE-READ programme the required patient information was fed on to the RFID strips (Greenway RFID Manufacturers). The information includes name of the subject, gender, age, treatment performed previously, and prosthetic details of implants as well. The overdentures were heat polymerized and made ready. A small rectangular cut of 5 cm × 1 cm with a depth of 1 mm was made on lingual surface of the lower dentures and palatal region in maxillary dentures. The measurement of the cut corresponds to the measurement of the RFID strips. The strips were then incorporated into the cut section of the dentures, and the dentures were sealed using the autopolymerization acrylic resin (clear). This procedure was done with utmost care to eliminate any air bubbles being trapped. The dentures were finished and polished. The RFID strips incorporated dentures were READ using the RFID reader [Figure 3]. The ability of the RFID reader to accurately identify was verified. The patients were reviewed after a period of 6 months for readability.
Figure 3: Details about the patient and the implant used is shown on the display following scanning of the RFID strip

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  Results Top


In the in-vitro study involving the non-clinical dentures all the 10 RFID strips were accurately read by the reader. In the clinical study, the reader was able to detect the patient details in 35 dentures immediately after placement. Patient's detailed treatment history which was entirely readable even after 6 months of placement.


  Discussion Top


In this study, we have made an attempt to use these commercially available RFID strips to be incorporated into the dentures to facilitate its identification and also provide information on the treatment history.

These RFID strips operates at 140 kHz. It is a passive tag and does not need any power source, the tags are flexible and it is very easier to adapt to the denture surface. The information for the RFID tags is fed through the readers and is easily accessible and editable. Whereas in the case of the denture labelling methods, the information fed on to the labelling system are not editable in case of the barcodes they require a huge database for the storage of the information which is not required in the case of use of the RFIDs.

In most of the denture labelling system, there has always been a drawback in the amount of information stored, but that is being eliminated in case of RFIDs it virtually give a huge amount of storage in the RFID. They are not affected by denture disinfection methods, can resist high temperature up to 300 degrees but not fire proof.[2],[3],[10]

The cost of the RFID reader may be a drawback.[10] The cost of a single unit of RFID strip is minimum about Rs 6–8 per strip, but the cost of the RFID reader is high costing from Rs. 50,000 onwards. But a single RFID reader is enough to READ all these tags so might be a one-time investment. In the earlier articles, RFID tags were used which were bulkier, whereas in this study strips were used which is advantageous in terms of flexibility and thickness.[6],[8],[9]

Patient's previous treatment information may prove to be informative especially in implant treatment. It will give useful information for the future dentist about the brand of implant, dimension, and area of placement of implant. Prosthesis details like abutment dimension, types, and type of prosthesis. This will be useful especially during the maintenance phase and in case of replacement of failed prosthesis. In complete dentures, it also may provide details like type of material used, shade, and mould size of the teeth used.

This is the start what we expect to be a big change in the denture identification system. Future studies can be focused.


  Conclusion Top


This study proves that RFID can be an easy and effective method as identification device and valuable prosthetic history as well.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Nuzzolese E, Di Vella G. Future project concerning mass disaster management: A forensic odontology prospectus. Int Dent J 2007;57:261-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bali SK, Naqash TA, Abdullah S. Denture identification methods: A review. Int J Health Sci Res 2013;3:100-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Richmond R, Pretty IA. Contemporary methods of labeling dental prostheses - A review of the literature. J Forensic Sci 2006;5:1120-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Irnich W. Electronic security systems and active implantable medical devices. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2002;25:1235-58.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Millet C, Jeannin C. Incorporation of microchips to facilitate denture identification by radio frequency tagging. J Prosthet Dent 2004;92:588-90.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nuzzolese E, Marcario V, Di Vella G. Incorporation of Radio Frequency Identification Tag in dentures to facilitate recognition and forensic human identification. Open Dent J 2010;4:33-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Thevissen PW, Poelman G, De CoomanM, Puers R, Willems G. Implantation of an RFID-tag into human molars to reduce hard forensic identification labor. Part 2: Physical properties. Forensic Sci Int 2006;15:S40-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Richmond R, Pretty IA. The Use of Radio-Frequency Identification Tags for Labeling Dentures-Scanning Properties. J Forensic Sci 2009;54:664-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Madrid C, Korsvold T, Rochat A, Abarca M. Radio frequency identification (RFID) of dentures in long-term care facilities. J Prosthet Dent 2012;107:199-202.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yao W, Chu C, Li Z. The Adoption and Implementation of RFID Technologies in Healthcare: A Literature Review. J Med Syst 2012;36:3507-25.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
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