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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-24

Assessment of healthy lifestyle and wellbeing status among the employees of a tertiary care hospital


1 Department of Cardiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission20-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance19-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication14-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vanajakshamma Velam
Professor, Department of Cardiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Alipiri Road, Tirupati - 517 507, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JDRNTRUHS.JDRNTRUHS_103_19

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  Abstract 


Background and Aims: Individual barriers to change in lifestyle include lack of proper knowledge particularly about nutrition and physical activity, lack of acceptance to change behaviour, lack of self-motivation and lastly physical and socioeconomic limitations.
Methods: This is a prospective, questionnaire based study conducted at a tertiary care hospital between May and August of 2019. A total of 777 employees working at different professional levels were enrolled in to the study. All the enrolled employees were subjected to a detailed questionnaire consisting of various dimensions of health which includes physical health, mental health, social health, spiritual health and intellectual health dimension.
Results: The mean age of the study group was 37.38 ± 9.74 years (range: 17-68 years). Among the participants, 42.1% are male and 57.9% are female. Most of the study participants are practicing moderate physical activity (67.6%). Current smokers and alcoholics are 2.1% and 9.3% respectively. Diabetes and hypertension was seen in 7.3% and 9.7% respectively. The overall wellbeing showed that 40.8% of the staff are having good wellbeing and 31.5% showed some wellbeing risks. Outstanding wellbeing score was observed in 22.9% and only in 4.8% showed serious health risks related to their wellbeing.
Conclusion: The overall wellbeing in healthcare staff is good at our tertiary care hospital. Majority of the staff showing risks with regards to their physical wellbeing due to poor exercise practices and abnormal food intake behaviour. Joint family system was found to be a factor for better mental health wellbeing among healthcare staff. Practicing exercise, meditation, yoga and controlling abnormal food intake leads to further wellbeing improvement.

Keywords: Healthcare employees, lifestyle, wellbeing


How to cite this article:
Velam V, Kasala L, Durgaprasad R, Bitla AR. Assessment of healthy lifestyle and wellbeing status among the employees of a tertiary care hospital. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2020;9:20-4

How to cite this URL:
Velam V, Kasala L, Durgaprasad R, Bitla AR. Assessment of healthy lifestyle and wellbeing status among the employees of a tertiary care hospital. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 1];9:20-4. Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2020/9/1/20/284194




  Introduction Top


World Health Organization (WHO) has defined “health” as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. In India, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are estimated to account for 60% of total adult deaths.[1] In line with WHO Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013-20, India in its National Health Policy 2017, stated to reduce the number of premature deaths from NCDs by 25% by 2025.[2]

In the management of NCDs like diabetes or hypertension, lifestyle (i.e. non-drug) measures such as promoting physical activity, healthy diet, stress management, avoidance of tobacco products, avoidance of alcohol intake and most importantly increased awareness about the condition are of paramount importance for therapy to be successful. Eliminating obesity, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity could prevent up to 80% of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus.[3]

For being healthy, lifestyle modification is inevitable at all stages of prevention.[4] It is proven that people's lifestyle has a great influence on their health and life span. Different dimensions are considered for lifestyle, such as nutrition, physical activity, self-control, cigarette and alcohol, social relationships, and controlling the stress.[5]

According to WHO, people can protect themselves from diseases by changing their lifestyle.[6] As a significant behaviour in improving the health level, physical activity can prevent or delay chronic illnesses and reduce death rate. There are, also, some evidences verifying that regular physical activity improves mental health, reduces the level of depression or anxiety, and increases the level of satisfaction and quality of life.[7],[8]

Mental health is another factor affecting the wellbeing of society. As defined by WHO, mental health is the ability to have a proper relationship with people, change or improve personal or social environment, and solve the paradoxes of personal tendencies, logically and properly.[9]

Individual barriers to change in lifestyle include lack of proper knowledge particularly about nutrition and physical activity, lack of acceptance to change behaviour, lack of self-motivation and lastly physical and socioeconomic limitations.[10] With this background, the present study was sought to assess the wellbeing knowledge using wellbeing assessment tool among the employees of our tertiary care teaching hospital.


  Methods Top


This is a prospective, questionnaire based study conducted at Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati from May to August, 2019. A total of 777 employees working at different professional levels were enrolled in to the study.

Inclusion criteria

  • Male and Female employees of SVIMS.
  • Willing to give voluntary written informed consent.


Exclusion criteria

  • Not willing to participate in the study.
  • Non-adherence to the follow-up.


Regulatory approvals

This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee of SVIMS, Tirupati with IEC No. 896 (approval dated 23-04-2019). A written informed consent was obtained from all the participants before their participation into the study.

Data collection

All the enrolled employees were subjected to a detailed questionnaire consisting of various dimensions of health, which includes physical health, mental health, social health, spiritual health, and intellectual health dimensions. Scoring system is awarded for each question from 1 to 5.

Questionnaire

The wellbeing assessment tool used in this study was a validated and standardized one consisting of 5 wellbeing components including physical health dimension, mental health dimension, social health dimension, spiritual health, intellectual health dimension along with general demographic details of the participants. Each wellbeing component will have 5 questions with a maximum score of 25.

The scoring pattern and health status of individual will be correlated as follows:

[INLINE: 1]

This tool is adapted from that at the McKinley Health Centre at the University of Illinois:

http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/units/health_ed/health_education.htm

Statistical analysis

Observations were captured on paper case record forms initially and transformed into MS-Excel spreadsheets. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. (IBM Corp, Somers, NY, USA). Results were expressed as mean ± S.D and frequencies with percentages for continuous and categorical variables, respectively.


  Results Top


Current study enrolled a total of 777 subjects of various professions working in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Mean age of the study group was 37.38 ± 9.74 years (range: 17-68 years). Among the participants, 42.1% are male and 57.9% are female.

Majority of the participants (83.9%) are married and 72.5% of the participants are living in nuclear family system. Half (53.4%) of the participants were studied up to under graduation level followed by post-graduation (27.2%) and School level (19.4%), respectively. Among the participants, 41.8%, 22.8%, 19.2%, 11.1% and 5.1% are belongs to paramedical/nursing, administrative, pessy, professional and security professions. Demographic details are shown in [Table 1].
TABLE 1: Demographic Details Of The Study Participants

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Lifestyle characteristics

Most of the study participants are practicing moderate physical activity (67.6%) followed by low (19.7%) and vigorous (12.7%) physical activity. Strict exercise, meditation and yoga are followed by 37.1%, 31.1% and 16.3% respectively. Only 37.1% have habit of following strict exercise. Meditation and Yoga are being practiced by 31.1% and 16.3%, respectively. Among the participants, majority are non-vegetarians (78.1%). Abnormal food intake and avoiding bad food was observed in 30.8% and 18.7%. Current smokers and current alcoholics are 2.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension was seen in 7.3% and 9.7%, respectively. Lifestyle characteristics are summarized in [Table 2].
TABLE 2: Lifestyle Characteristics

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Assessment of wellbeing characteristics

The overall wellbeing showed that 40.8% of the staff have good wellbeing and 31.5% showed some wellbeing risks. Outstanding wellbeing score was observed in 22.9% and only in 4.8% showed serious health risks related to their wellbeing. The individual wellbeing scores related to physical, mental, social, spiritual and intellectual health are shown in [Table 3].
TABLE 3: Wellbeing Characteristics

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[Table 4] shows that joint families are relatively having good wellbeing percentage than in nuclear families.
TABLE 4: Mental Health Vs Type of Family System

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  Discussion Top


In recent years, occupational mental health has been the subject of particular attention. Health at work has become a major concern in our society and a priority in public health.[11] Healthcare employees are constantly exposed to many occupational stressors such as time pressure, work overload, lack of social support at work and interpersonal conflicts with other staff.[12] Those occupational stressors are linked to distress which can influence staff performance and patient care.

In our study, majority of the hospital employees are regularly practicing moderate physical activity, avoiding bad food, non-smokers, non-alcoholics, non-diabetics and non-hypertensive. Still, the qualities of practicing exercise, meditation, yoga and abnormal food intake behaviour needs to be improved. These results are in agreeable with the findings of studies available in the literature.[13],[14]

The overall wellbeing showed no risk in 63.7% of the staff indicating that the healthcare staff are having awareness on healthy life style. Majority of the staff showing risks with regards to their physical wellbeing due to poor exercise practices and abnormal food intake behaviour. This is because of non-availability of time and hectic work schedules of healthcare employees/staff to spend time on physical activities.[14] Most of the staff members showed no wellbeing risks with regards to their mental, social, spiritual and intellectual health as they are educated, non-smokers, non-alcoholics, non-hypertensive, non-diabetic, and practicing meditation and yoga.

The type of family is influencing the mental health wellbeing of the healthcare staff. Staff members who are living under joint family system relatively showing better mental health wellbeing when compared with nuclear families (P = 0.005). This is because of the sharing of work burden by the family members which reduces the strain that leads to peace of mind.[15]


  Limitations Top


This is a single centre study. Study participants include doctors, nursing, paramedical, administrative, security staff, sanitary, and general workers.


  Conclusion Top


The over-all wellbeing in healthcare staff is good at our tertiary care hospital. Majority of the staff showing risks with regards to their physical wellbeing due to poor exercise practices and abnormal food intake behaviour. Joint family system was found to be a factor for better mental health wellbeing among healthcare staff. Practicing exercise, meditation, yoga and controlling abnormal food intake leads to further wellbeing improvement among the healthcare staff.

Acknowledgements

None.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Author Contributions

VV: Protocol designing, manuscript review and approval; KL: Protocol designing, initial manuscript writing, analysis and approval; DR: Manuscript review and approval; ARB: Manuscript review and approval.



 
  References Top

1.
World Heart Federation. Factsheet: Cardiovascular Diseases in India. 2016. Available from: http://www.worldheartfederation.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Fact_sheets/2016/Cardiovascular_diseases_in_India.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 13].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
National Health Policy 2017. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. Available from: http://www.mohfw.nic.in/showfile.php?lid=4275. [Last assessed on 2017 Sep 13].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B editors. Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Available from: whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241564373_eng.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
McEwen M, Pullis B. Community-Based Nursing: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Co.; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Mcdonald S, Thompson C. Women's Health. Sydney: Elsevier; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ahmadvand A, Jamshidi HR, Sotoudeh M, Sayyari AA, Shadpoor K, Safykhany HR, et al. Global Health Report 2002, Risk Reduction, Improving Healthy Life. Tehran: Great Ebne Sina Institute; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Aghamolaei T. Selfefficacy, benefits and barriers to regular physical activity Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Epidemiol 2008;4:9-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Giacobbi PR Jr, Stancil M, Hardin B, Bryant L. Physical activity and quality of life experienced by highly active individuals with physical disabilities. Adapt Phys Activ Q 2008;25:189-207.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Kaplan L. Education and Mental Health. New York: Harper and Row; 1971.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Del Gobbo LC, Kalantarian S, Imamura F, Lemaitre R, Siscovick DS, Psaty BM, et al. Contribution of major lifestyle risk factors for incident heart failure in older adults: The cardiovascular health study. JACC Heart Fail 2015;3:520-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Roland-Lévy C, Lemoine J, Jeoffrion C. Health and wellbeing at work: The hospital context. Eur Rev Appl Psychol 2014;64:53-62.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Maslach C. Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2003;12:189-92.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
AlAteeq MA, AlArawi SA. Healthy lifestyle among primary healthcare professionals. Saudi Med J. 2014;35:488-94.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Jun SY, Kim J, Choi H, Kim JS, Lim SH, Sul B, et al. Physical activity of workers in a hospital. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16:532.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Avasthi A. Preserve and strengthen family to promote mental health. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52:113-26.  Back to cited text no. 15
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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