Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 159--161

A study of effect of end-stage renal disease on fingerprints


J Indirakshi1, Hari Krishna Reddy Mogili2, R Ram2, V Siva Kumar2, Abhilash Koratala3,  
1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, DVL at Padmavathi Medical College for Women, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 University of Florida, Gansvile, Florida, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hari Krishna Reddy Mogili
Room No. 4, Block No. 3, Staff Quarters, Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, Andhra Pradesh
India

Abstract

Background: Epidermal ridge patterns on fingers, commonly known as fingerprints are one of the oldest and reliable means for human identification. Their reliability is based on the fundamental premise that these patterns are unique to individuals and persistent, i.e., do not change with time. In our maintenance hemodialysis program, we have observed that some of the patients were experiencing problems due to alteration in the pattern while using fingerprints as a biometric for identification. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to understand the magnitude and changes in patterns of the fingerprint impression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. Objectives: To compare and record loss of fingerprint pattern in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease on maintenance hemodialysis and in controls. Methods: A case control study was conducted over six months period on 150 patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on dialysis and 150 patients of healthy controls in Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences,Tirupati. The fingerprints were obtained from all the ten fingers and were analyzed using a magnifying lens under good day light for finger print clarity and pattern . Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, 2, USA), unpaired student T test. Results: Fingerprints were partially lost in 13.3% and completely lost in 10% of patients with ESRD while it was only 1.3% in control group.



How to cite this article:
Indirakshi J, Mogili HK, Ram R, Kumar V S, Koratala A. A study of effect of end-stage renal disease on fingerprints.J NTR Univ Health Sci 2019;8:159-161


How to cite this URL:
Indirakshi J, Mogili HK, Ram R, Kumar V S, Koratala A. A study of effect of end-stage renal disease on fingerprints. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 6 ];8:159-161
Available from: http://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2019/8/3/159/269483


Full Text



 Introduction



Fingerprint proves to be less time-consuming and an easy way of personal identification. In the process of establishment of identity in the government and insurance schemes, biometrics with fingerprinting has become a norm, recently in banking transactions for people who lack literacy from April 2017 onward.[1]

The loss of fingerprints is known in hereditary kidney disorders such as Wilms tumor and adult polycystic kidney disease Type 3; others include acro-renal-ocular syndrome, Potter syndrome, kabuki makeup syndrome, neurofaciodigitorenal syndrome, and syndactyly Type 5.[2]

In our maintenance hemodialysis program, we have observed that some of the patients were experiencing problems due to alteration in the pattern while using fingerprints as a biometric for identification. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to understand the magnitude and changes in patterns of the fingerprint impression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis.

Keeping this in view, we conducted a cross-sectional study to understand the magnitude and the pattern of change with regard to fingerprint impression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The study involved 300 individuals comprising 150 patients (n = 150) and equal number of controls (n = 150) during a 6-month period (October 2016–March 2017).

 Materials and Methods



In this single Center, cross sectional study, we enrolled a total of 300 subjects, comprising of 150 dialysis patients and equal number of healthy controls during a six-month period (October 2016 to March 2017). The fingerprints were obtained from all the 10 fingers. It was analyzed with magnifying lens under good daylight for fingerprint clarity and pattern.

Fingerprints are classified as intact, partially lost, and completely lost. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA), unpaired Student's t-test – to find out the significance of the difference between cases and controls. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

 Results



The demographic, professional, and the fingerprint impression details of patients and controls are tabulated in [Table 1]. Blue-collar jobs comprise farmers, daily-wage laborers, office and attenders; white-collar includes TTD superintendents, government employees, desk jobs, and teachers.{Table 1}

[INLINE:1]

Fingerprints were normal in 76.6%, partially lost in 13.3%, and completely lost in 10% of the patients with ERSD. Whereas 98.7% of control population had normal fingerprint pattern, and in only 1.3% there is partially lost fingerprints pattern. Fingerprint patterns are significantly lost in patients with ESRD when compared with controls. P-value in partially lost was <0.009 and <0.001 in completely lost, both statistically significant.

 Discussion



Our observations highlight the importance of fingerprint loss with statistical significance in the patients with ESRD. This abnormality was significantly seen in patients with blue-collar jobs in comparison to white collars. The possibilities could be related to old age, anemia, xerosis, or dry skin all of which are secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The unrelated causes include manual laborers, homemakers, occupational hand dermatitis, and associated systemic diseases such as breast carcinoma and scleroderma.

In state insurance dialysis schemes, only biometric identification is used which is not flawless and is prone to noncorrectable errors. Wearing down of the fingerprint has found to be the major reason for difficulty in registering of biometric fingerprint attendance.[3]

Fingerprint pattern is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus, breast carcinoma, patients on chemotherapeutic agents such as capecitabine, hand dermatitis, cold weather, excess sweating, and occupations such as medical professionals, mechanics, guitarist, and violinist. The underlying cause in hand dermatitis is possibly by scaling, wrinkling, and fissuring which are responsible for fingerprint dystrophy or low-quality score impairing the match score.[4]

Capecitabine commonly used for breast and colorectal cancer causes hand–foot syndrome in which fingerprints are lost, and the reason for it still not clear.[5] Anemia causes fingerprint changes by altered capillary circulatory parameters of hands. Aging results in loss of collagen making the skin loose and dry. Fingerprint pattern is varied in breast carcinoma or at risk with more than or equal to 6 whorls.[6]

 Conclusion



Our observations highlight the importance of fingerprint loss with statistical significance in patients with ESRD. Factors such as old age, anemia and xerosis of the skin that are prevalent in these patients could have a contributory role by altering the capillary circulatory parameters of hands. This is the first study on fingerprint changes in ESRD, to the best of our knowledge. We believe this serves as a basis for future larger studies evaluating the true prevalence of fingerprint changes in this patient population and determine the causal relationship by adequately controlling the confounding factors.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Available from: http://www.fingerprintsscanner.com>tag>adhar aadharcard-Biometricfingerprintscanner. [Last accessed on 2018 Jul].
2Wijerathne BT, Meier RJ, Salgado SS, Agampodi SB. Dermatoglyphics in kidney diseases: A review. Springerplus 2016;5:290.
3Rashid AF, Lateef M, Kaur B, Aggarwal OP, Hamid S, Gupta N. Biometric finger print identification is it a reliable tool or not? J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2013;35:109-12.
4Lee CK, Chang CC, Johar A, Puwira O, Roshidah B. Fingerprint changes and verification failure among patients with hand dermatitis. JAMA Dermatol 2013;149:295-9.
5van Doorn L, Veelenturf S, Binkhorst L, Bins S, Mathijssen R. Capecitabine and the risk of fingerprint loss. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:122-3.
6Seltzer MH, Plato CC, Fox KM. Dermatoglyphics in the identification of women either with or at risk for breast cancer. Am J Med Genet 1990;37:482-8.