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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 156-162

Comparison of systemic levels of regulatory T cells in periodontal health and disease

1 Department of Periodontics, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Road No 5, Kamala Nagar, Hyderabad, AP, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Ragas Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Animal Biotechnology, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Consultant Endodontist, Denty's Dental Care, Hyderabad, AP, India

Correspondence Address:
Pinnamaneni Indumathy
Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics, Panineeya Maha Vidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences, Road No 5, Kamala Nagar, Dilsukh Nagar, Hyderabad, A.P.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.102440

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Aim: Treg cells have been identified to play an important role in regulating T-cell responses and thereby affecting the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. However, their role in periodontal disease is yet to be identified. Alterations in the expression of regulatory T cells in periodontal tissues could result in a change in their systemic levels. The aim of the study was to identify the regulatory T-cell subsets in systemic circulation and to compare their levels in patients with periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five peripheral blood samples were collected from each of two groups of patients (periodontal health: Group A, and periodontal disease: Group B). The samples were processed for flow cytometric analysis to detect and compare the expression of Treg cells (regulatory T cells). Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t test. Results: The mean Treg cells for the health group (Group A) was 311,724 cells/ml with a standard deviation of 250,411. The mean Treg cells for the disease group (Group B) was 260,809 cells/ml with a standard deviation of 187,900. P value was 0.508, which is statistically not significant. Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference between Treg cell levels in periodontal health and disease, with respect to systemic circulation, although there is a slight decrease in levels in periodontitis compared to health. Apart from Th1/Th2 cells, the regulatory T cells may also contribute to the overall T-cell phenotype. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

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