Comparison of systemic levels of regulatory T cells in periodontal health and disease
Pinnamaneni Indumathy1, KV Arun2, T. S. S. Kumar2, A Raja3, P Sai Prashanth4
1 Department of Periodontics, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Road No 5, Kamala Nagar, Hyderabad, AP, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Ragas Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Animal Biotechnology, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Consultant Endodontist, Denty's Dental Care, Hyderabad, AP, India
Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics, Panineeya Maha Vidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences, Road No 5, Kamala Nagar, Dilsukh Nagar, Hyderabad, A.P.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: Treg cells have been identified to play an important role in regulating T-cell responses and thereby affecting the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. However, their role in periodontal disease is yet to be identified. Alterations in the expression of regulatory T cells in periodontal tissues could result in a change in their systemic levels. The aim of the study was to identify the regulatory T-cell subsets in systemic circulation and to compare their levels in patients with periodontal health and disease.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-five peripheral blood samples were collected from each of two groups of patients (periodontal health: Group A, and periodontal disease: Group B). The samples were processed for flow cytometric analysis to detect and compare the expression of Treg cells (regulatory T cells). Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t test.
Results: The mean Treg cells for the health group (Group A) was 311,724 cells/ml with a standard deviation of 250,411. The mean Treg cells for the disease group (Group B) was 260,809 cells/ml with a standard deviation of 187,900. P value was 0.508, which is statistically not significant.
Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference between Treg cell levels in periodontal health and disease, with respect to systemic circulation, although there is a slight decrease in levels in periodontitis compared to health. Apart from Th1/Th2 cells, the regulatory T cells may also contribute to the overall T-cell phenotype. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.