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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-160

A cross-sectional study on preponderance of stress and depression among engineering students and their association with various recent factors


1 Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation (KIMS&RF), Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Physiology, Government Medical College (GMC), Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation (KIMS&RF), Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Physiology, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation (KIMS&RF), Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission16-Feb-2019
Date of Decision27-Sep-2019
Date of Acceptance27-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Sep-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Santhi Vadugu
Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Ongole, Ongole - 523001, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JDRNTRUHS.JDRNTRUHS_21_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Stress actually means body's psychological perception of pressure and its response to that pressure, involving multiple factors. The factors may be either external or internal/physical or biological. Stress-management is one of the most prevalent and popular topic of the latest times. Stress is mostly associated and leading to depression in the present juncture.
Aims: The main objective of this study is to evaluate and elicit the levels of stress and depression in association with various recent factors accounting and resulting in them. Prevalence of stress and depression in relation to factors such as body mass index (BMI), social feeling, gastric problems, appetite, hair fall can also be assessed by this study.
Materials and Methods: 298 engineering students of an engineering college were requested to answer up the analysis sheet comprising of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and other criteria comprising some selected factors adding to stress and depression. Analysis sheets were assessed, results were obtained and statistically analysed by GraphPad InStat Software.
Results: The results of the present study indicate that majority of the students are having moderate and higher levels of stress, and no depression. Most of the people felt the higher levels of stress during the period of examinations.
Conclusions: The students studying first year felt more stressed, which could be due to their recent entry into the course. Female students are more prone to these stressors and depressors. Juniors were more stressed when compared to senior students.

Keywords: Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), depression, engineering, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stress


How to cite this article:
Kutikuppala LV, Vadugu S, Salaam MA, Venugopal Raju S V. A cross-sectional study on preponderance of stress and depression among engineering students and their association with various recent factors. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2020;9:158-60

How to cite this URL:
Kutikuppala LV, Vadugu S, Salaam MA, Venugopal Raju S V. A cross-sectional study on preponderance of stress and depression among engineering students and their association with various recent factors. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 25];9:158-60. Available from: https://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2020/9/3/158/296827




  Introduction Top


Stress and depression are the most leading causes of mental illness in the recent scenario. There were many campaigns going around the globe on these two eminent sources of psychological sickness.[1] To add up, 'Depression – Let's talk' is the theme of the World Health Day celebrated by WHO for 2017. This shows, how effective are these two elements, causing a huge scene of action.[2] So, this study aims to rule out some of the factors of the human life in relation to their daily activities leading to stress and depression.


  Subjects and Methods Top


This study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) before commencement. After obtaining approval, 298 engineering students of an engineering college were requested to answer up the analysis sheet comprising of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and other criteria comprising some selected factors adding to stress and depression. The responses are collected and then evaluated to obtain results. GraphPad InStat Software was used for statistical analysis. P values lesser than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.[3]


  Results Top


A total of 298 engineering students participated in this study, out of which 127 are males and 171 are females. The students of first year, second year and third year of the course have participated in this study. Among these students, 42.6% are males and 57.4% are females. All the answered data from the questionnaires are evaluated.[4] The factors such as BMI, appetite, social feeling, appetite, GI problems are assessed in relation to stress and depression and results are follows:

Sleep:



Social Feeling:



Hair fall:



Depression score:



Stress score:




  Discussion Top


298 engineering students participated in this study, out of which 127 are males and 171 are females. 46.5% of the total students have the normal values of body mass index (BMI). 42.7% of the students are over the levels of their normal BMI. 59.7% of the total students are positive for hair fall, which is greatly significant. 76.7% of the total students are having normal sleep-wake cycle. 77.4% of the total students have normal social feeling. 75.6% of the total students have normal appetite. 84.7% of the total students do not have any gastro intestinal related problems. 34.7% of the total students are having moderate stress levels and 40.6% of the total students are having higher levels of psychological stress. 46.8% of the total students are normal in terms of depression.[5] The results of all the factors were correlated and compared among the students, with their levels of stress and depression.[6] The results, thus obtained are then tested for significance. The statistical results of significance for different factors are shown below:

The P values tested for significance to stress and depression with gender differences are:

  • For stress, P value is 0.8551 “” not significant
  • For depression, P value is 0.1551 “” not significant


The P values tested for significance with stress and depression among various factors are as follows:

  • For appetite, P value is 0.1436 “” not significant
  • For GI problem, P value is 0.9005 “” not significant
  • For sleep, P value is 0.9505 “” not significant
  • For social feeling, P value is 0.8535 “” not significant
  • For BMI, P value is 0.046 “” Significant
  • For Hair fall, P < 0.0001 “” Extremely Significant



  Conclusion Top


The results of the present study indicate that majority of the students are having moderate and higher levels of stress, normal in case of depression.[7] Most of the people felt the higher levels of stress during the period of semester examinations. The students studying first year of the course showed more scoring in stress and depression.[8] This could be due to their recent entry into the course. Female students are more prone to these stressors and depressors. Juniors were more stressed when compared to senior students. Among all the considered factors, hair fall has been the most significant factor, supporting the study. BMI is another significant factor, which is also supporting the study. Increased levels of these levels of stress and depression can cause hair loss and weight gain, which are already proven globally. Therefore, these factors were tested and found significant. The other factors considered such as GI problems, appetite, sleep, social feeling remain insignificant and did not showed any impact on the levels of stress and depression among the students.

Acknowledgement

Firstly, we would like to thank the god almighty, for his precious grace on us, without which this could not be possible. This research was also supported by our institution, colleagues, and many more people. We thank each and every one from the bottom of our hearts for their valuable support throughout the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Amanya SB, Nakitende J, Ngabirano TD. A cross-sectional study of stress and its sources among health professional students at Makerere University, Uganda. Nurs Open 2017;5:70-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Roberts CJ, Campbell IC, Troop N. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake. Eur Eat Disord Rev 2014;22:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bhatia V, Tandon RK. Stress and the gastrointestinal tract. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;20:332-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Meerlo P, Sgoifo A, Suchecki D. Restricted and disrupted sleep: Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity. Sleep Med Rev 2008; 12:197-210.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gazelle H, Ladd GW. Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: A diathesis–stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Dev 2003;74:257-78.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Erschens R, Herrmann-Werner A, Keifenheim KE, Loda T, Bugaj TJ, Nikendei C, et al. Differential determination of perceived stress in medical students and high-school graduates due to private and training-related stressors. PloS One 2018;13:e0191831.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mahroon ZA, Borgan SM, Kamel C, Maddison W, Royston M, Donnellan C. Factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among medical students in Bahrain. Acad Psychiatry 2018;42:31-40.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Al-Alawi M, Al-Sinawi H, Al-Qubtan A, Al-Lawati J, Al-Habsi A, Al-Shuraiqi M,et al. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome and depression among medical students at Sultan Qaboos University: A cross-sectional analytical study from Oman. Arch Environ Occup Health 2017;74:130-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    




 

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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References

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