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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 183-192

Effects of Areca nut extracts on the neutrophil functions in blood and saliva samples of subjects with normal oral mucosa with and without Areca nut habit: A comparative study

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti
Professor and Head, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Background: Areca nut, a major component in areca quid possesses genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Studies suggest that areca nut chewing is associated with a higher prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) which could be also due to the detrimental effects of areca nut extract on the host defense system. Objectives: To determine the effects of Areca nut extracts (ANE) of ripe (r-ANE) and tender (t-ANE) on the functions of neutrophils derived from peripheral blood and saliva samples in apparently healthy individuals with and without areca nut chewing habit. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects with clinically normal-appearing oral mucosa without any systemic disorders were divided into two groups of 30 each consisting of subjects without any habits grouped under the control group while subjects with areca nut chewing habit were grouped under the study group. Blood and saliva samples were collected from both groups. Neutrophil functions in both blood and saliva were assessed by Nitroblue Tetrazolium assay (NBT) and Phagocytic assay (PHG) using various concentration of t-ANE and r-ANE extracts. Results: In both the groups, with increasing concentrations of t-ANE and r-ANE there was a drop in mean scores for both assays. A comparison between the groups revealed higher mean values in the control group than the study group which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Areca nut affects the neutrophil function significantly in ripe form than tender form. Saliva can prove to be an effective alternative material for analyzing the neutrophil function and hence the immune status in individuals. This may alter the defensive role of the oral cavity, and this may be one possible mechanism by which areca nut compromises the oral health of users of areca nut products increasing the susceptibility for various pathologies including oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF).

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