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   2012| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 11, 2012

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An insight into HIV/AIDS epidemic in India and India's response
Turlapati L. N. Prasad
April-June 2012, 1(2):65-71
  3 4,236 480
Study of pattern of blood sugar levels in low birth weight babies who are exclusively on breast milk
VSS Yerramilli Murty, Kethireddi Dinendra Ram
April-June 2012, 1(2):90-93
Background: Breast feeding of every newborn baby is being widely advocated in view of its undoubted and multiple benefits to both newborn baby and mother. But low birth weight (LBW) babies with several handicaps may not maintain blood sugar level. Adequacy of breast milk in maintaining euglycemia in LBW newborn babies is being studied. Aims: To study the pattern of blood sugar levels in LBW babies who feed exclusively on breast milk. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in postnatal ward and neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care centre. One hundred consecutive neonates with a birth weight less than 2500g when born, being fed exclusively with breast milk were studied. Materials and Methods: Estimation of blood sugar levels in LBW neonates with birth weight less than 2500g who were given direct breast feeding or expressed breast milk exclusively. Results: The present study revealed that 95% of LBW neonates maintained adequate blood sugar levels during the first 72 hours of life with breast milk irrespective of gestational age and birth weight studied. Single episode of hypoglycemia occurred in 5% of these LBW babies. Conclusions: There is a very low incidence of hypoglycemia in LBW newborn babies (including intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm babies) on exclusive breast feeds. Breast milk is optimal feed in these LBW babies.
  3 6,159 1,196
Psychiatric co-morbidity in geriatric inpatients
Kalasapati Lokesh Kumar, Samrat Kar, Pavan K Reddy
April-June 2012, 1(2):81-85
Background: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is an important area of concern in the elderly population. But, most of the psychiatric morbidity remains undetected in this age group. Aim: To study the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders in geriatric inpatients. Materials and Methods: All the geriatric inpatients admitted in the non-psychiatric wards of Mamata General Hospital for a period of 1 month were assessed using a semi-structured interview consisting of socio-demographic details. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used to screen for psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms. Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for cognitive decline. The diagnosis was made according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Results: Out of 120 patients, 48 (40%) had psychiatric illness. Psychiatric disorders were more common among females and in patients living in nuclear families. Depression was found to be the most common (25%) illness. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of co-ordination between the physicians and psychiatrists for providing better psychiatric care of the geriatric inpatients.
  2 3,131 428
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of collagen in oral submucous fibrosis
Gannepalli Ashalata, Pacha Venkat Baghirath, Ayinampudi Bhargavi Krishna, Putcha Uday Kumar, Arun Tom
April-June 2012, 1(2):99-105
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is considered as a potentially malignant disease, which is associated with betel quid and pan masala chewing. It is thought to be due to the defective collagen synthesis and degradation. The amount of collagen in the diseased varies with the functional stages and histopathological grades of the disease. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of the disease in oral submucous fibrosis, by correlating the functional staging with the histopathological grading and analyze the collagen distribution in different grades of OSMF using picrosirius red stain under polarizing microscope and also to assess the quantitative changes in collagen with respect to various histopathological grades of OSMF using spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: The study conducted on 40 subjects, which included 30 subjects with different functional and histopathological grades of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), and 10 were in control group. Functional staging and histopathological grading was done based on the definite criteria. A Histopathological and quantitative analysis of collagen was conducted using picrosirius red stain, polarizing microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results were analyzed using chi-square test, and the significance was tabulated. Results: The functional staging and the histopathological grading did not show statistical correlation, but as the histopathological grade of the disease increased; there was a shift in the polarizing color from yellow-green to orange-red. In the colorimetric estimation, the optical densities of the sample decreased as with increased grades of OSMF. Conclusion: In the present study, we observed that the histopathological grading of OSMF is not correlating with the functional staging of OSMF. Therefore, it mandates the proper correlation between the functional staging and the histopathological grading before the commencement of the treatment to render better outcome of the treatment.
  2 5,988 892
Device associated nosocomial infections and patterns of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital
Banda Venkata Ramana, Abhijit Chaudhury
April-June 2012, 1(2):86-89
Aim : This prospective study was carried out over a period of 1 year in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The aim of the study was to determine the organisms causing device-related nosocomial infections and to study their anti-microbial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods : Patients with endotracheal intubation, and central venous catheters (CVC)/venous cut down catheters were included in the study. Colonization of the endotracheal tube and colonization of the CVC/venous cut down catheters was studied. Results: The most common organisms isolated from endotracheal tube tips were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%), Escherichia coli (15%), other enterobacteriaceae (19%), non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) (13%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (40%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest organism, which showed highest frequency of resistance to gentamicin (81%) and ceftazidime (76%). The common organisms isolated from the vascular catheter tips were pseudomonas (30%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%), Escherichia coli (16%), other enterobacteriaceae (25%), NFGNB (11%), and MRSA (65%). Similar to ET tubes, here also pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest organism with maximum frequency of resistance to ceftazidime (69%). Conclusion: Knowledge of the resident microbial flora and their anti-microbial susceptibility pattern is necessary for formulating a rational antibiotic policy in a hospital.
  1 4,155 937
Evaluation of push-out bond strengths of two different adhesive root canal obturation systems: An in vitro study
Lakshman V Uppalapati, Jyothi Mandava
April-June 2012, 1(2):111-115
Background: Bonded obturations of the root canal are important to eliminate any space that allows the percolation of fluids, to resist disruptions in the filling due to mechanical stresses, and to possibly reinforce roots. Aim: To evaluate the regional bond strength of two adhesive endodontic obturating systems - EndoREZ and RoekoSeal. Methods and Materials: Thirty extracted human maxillary central incisors were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction. After cleaning and shaping of the root canals, the samples were randomly divided into two groups of 15 specimens each. In group A, samples were obturated using EndoREZ sealer and size #35, 0.06 taper EndoREZ points. In group B, samples were obturated with RoekoSeal sealer and size #35, 0.06 taper gutta-percha points. Each root was then sectioned into one mm thick slices with the help of a diamond saw under water coolant. The root slices were then subjected to push-out bond strength test in universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. After calculating the bond strength for each slice, data was subjected to student paired t-test. Results: The results showed statistically significant (P value < 0.05) higher mean bond strength for EndoREZ, when compared to RoekoSeal. Bond strength values showed a slightly increasing trend from coronal to apical regions, though the values are statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Under the conditions and scope of this study it can be concluded that EndoREZ performed better with higher mean push-out bond strength than RoekoSeal.
  1 2,840 348
Saliva and dental practice
Aiswaryalekshmy Sreelatha Umeswaran Nair, Rooban Thavarajah, Kannan Ranganathan
April-June 2012, 1(2):72-76
Human saliva plays an important role in the health of the oral cavity and of the body as a whole. It is a complex fluid that is actively secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. Its composition shows variations that reflect the physiology and the systemic health of the individual. It has the potential to be used for early detection of disease and assessment of its progression and treatment outcome. As a diagnostic tool, saliva has the unique advantage of being readily-available, and its collection is non-invasive. The field of salivary diagnostics and research is gaining importance and is becoming a major area of focus for researchers. Discovery of salivary biomarkers and its validation had broadened the use of salivary diagnostics from assessment of dental caries to the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and malignancies remote from the oral cavity. This article intends to give an overview of this exciting area of salivary research.
  1 5,169 698
Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome
Sameeraja Vaddera, Satyanarayana R Kakollu, Sudhakar Kancharla, Madhuri Cherkuri
April-June 2012, 1(2):120-121
Progeria is a rare disease with short stature and premature aging. The incidence is 1 in 8 million. Though the clinical features are typical, conventional biochemical and radiological features help in confirming the diagnosis. We present a rare case of short-statured female with features of aging and skin manifestations, suggestive of progeria.
  - 3,465 449
Primary extragenital retroperitoneal seminoma in an HIV positive man
Babji Korukonda, Bhavani R Reddi
April-June 2012, 1(2):122-123
Germ cell tumors in the male usually present as a swelling in the testis. Approximately, 1-2% of germ cell tumors arise in extragonadal locations. These tumors often grow to a considerable size before symptoms arise. A mass of primary extragenital retroperitoneal seminoma in the hypogastric region causing intestinal obstruction is rare. Though intracranial primary seminoma in an HIV person reported before, we believe this is the first case of retroperitoneal primary seminoma reported in an HIV positive man.
  - 2,367 221
Adrenal myelolipoma: A rare case report
Vissa Shanthi, Nandam M Rao, Balekoduru Chaitanya, Baddukonda A. R. Krishna, Kuppili V. M. Mohan
April-June 2012, 1(2):124-126
Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare adrenal gland benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. Very few cases have been reported. We report a case of 19-years-old female who presented with complaint of pain in the right lumbar region. Ultrasound abdomen showed right suprarenal mass. CT scan abdomen revealed a right adrenal gland measuring 6.4 × 4.3 × 5.5 cms with heterogenous attenuation. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) abdomen showed right adrenal mass containing both fat and soft tissue elements, suggesting the possibility of myelolipoma. The mass was surgically removed and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as myelolipoma of right adrenal gland. Awareness regarding this entity is very essential to exclude surgical exploration or extensive surgery.
  - 2,705 268
Incidental finding of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in emergency department
K Satyanarayana Rao, KV Seshaiah, D Srinivas Rao, Talluri Venkata Siva Pradeep
April-June 2012, 1(2):127-129
A middle-aged male patient was admitted into our Emergency medical department with a history of suicidal consumption of an unknown toxic substance mixed with alcohol. During evaluation features of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome were identified in his ECG. Pathophysiology, complications and treatment of WPW syndrome are discussed and the literature is reviewed.
  - 6,442 340
Comprehensive management of subgingival caries: A minimally invasive interdisciplinary approach
Rambabu Tanikonda, Sasidhar Nalluru, Suneetha Koneru, Satheesh Mannem
April-June 2012, 1(2):130-133
The relationship between periodontal health and the restoration of teeth is intimate and inseparable. Maintenance of gingival health constitutes one of the keys for longevity of teeth and dental restoration. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. Despite of an increased emphasis on the perio-restorative interface in restorative dentistry, many clinicians are unable to incorporate the concept of biologic width in a practical manner. This case report presents restorative management of subgingival caries by endodontal and minimally invasive periodontal treatment.
  - 17,944 1,203
Treatment of unilateral bifid condyle resection using a maxillary guidance ramp: A clinical report
Durga Prasad Tadi, Chiramana Sandeep, Polavarapu Jaya Krishna Babu, Thota Krishna Mohan
April-June 2012, 1(2):134-136
When the condyle is lost, guidance therapy may be required to achieve an improved alignment and function. To achieve an optimum occlusion, maxillary fixation or usage of either palatal guiding ramps or mandibular guiding ramps are generally the treatment of choice. The present case with a bifid condyle resection discusses about achieving an acceptable maxillomandibular relation within a period of 6 months, using a maxillary guidance ramp.
  - 3,180 369
University News

April-June 2012, 1(2):137-137
  - 1,594 193
Visual and surgical outcomes in non sutured secondary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation
KJN Siva Charan
April-June 2012, 1(2):77-80
Aim: To study the visual and surgical outcomes in non-sutured secondary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOLS). Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 100 cases of non-sutured secondary PC IOLS done between June 2007 to June 2008 at tertiary eye hospital. Results: 97% of patients had excellent visual and surgical results with non-sutured secondary PCIOL implantation. Conclusion: Our study shows the importance of aborting primary IOL implantation in the event of intra-operative posterior capsular rupture with doubtful capsular support, followed by a postoperative assessment, and good surgical technique can give excellent results in secondary PC IOL Implantation. Long-term complications are similar to primary PC IOL implantation.
  - 2,711 333
Endodontic retreatment: Rotary versus hand instrumentation: An in vitro study
Sujana Varri, Ram S Chukka, Nagesh Bolla, Sharat R Kavuri, Surya Kumari
April-June 2012, 1(2):116-119
Objective: The present study has probed the effectiveness of nickel titanium rotary instruments (ProTaper) and hand instruments in the retrieval of gutta-percha and sealer using Hemo-De as a solvent. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted, single-rooted anterior teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide sealer using the lateral condensation method. They were distributed into 3 groups of 10 each. Retreatment for group A was done using NiTi ProTaper alone, for group B using ProTaper and Hemo-De (d-limonene), and for group C using hand files with Hemo-De. The teeth were then split longitudinally into two halves. The remaining gutta-percha or sealer on the root canal wall in the cervical, middle, apical thirds, and the whole canals was visually scored with the aid of a stereo microscope. Results: The results have showed that the mean scores in groups A and B were generally lower than those for group C. Mean scores of the apical thirds tended to be higher (worse) than the middle and cervical thirds except in group A. Conclusion: ProTaper with or without Hemo-De seems to be a viable alternative retreatment method.
  - 4,887 506
Evaluation of centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark in albino mice
Jayasree Tirumalasetty, Kavitha Rasamal, Chandrasekhar Nutalapati, Saequa Samreen
April-June 2012, 1(2):94-98
Background: Cinnamomum Zeylanicum is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is widely used as a spice. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. Aims: The study aims to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Bark (AECZB) in albino mice in Comparison with Diazepam. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice (SWR) aged six to seven weeks, of either sex, weighing about 25 - 30 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies three different doses were selected. The animals were divided into five different groups. The first group was kept as the control (Normal Saline), second as the standard (Diazepam) and the remaining three groups as Test I, Test II, and Test III, and given different doses of the AECZB. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and Locomotor activity on Photoactometer were performed. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was carried out by using ANOVA, followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison tests, using primer of biostatistics McGraw-Hill software version (2011). P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract significantly reduced the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AECZB possesses sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant activities.
  - 7,269 739
Mood and mouth
Reddy Sudhakara Reddy, Nimma Vijayalaxmi, Tatapudi Ramesh, Rudraraju Ramakrishnam Raju, Reddy Lavanya Reddy, Thakur Rajesh Singh
April-June 2012, 1(2):106-110
Aims and Objectives: To find the association of various aspects of oral health behavior in the patients with depressive disorders. Study Design: This investigation was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study incorporating a study group diagnosed as having depression and a control group in a stipulated period of 2 months. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group of 18 - 60 years were examined using diagnostic instruments, and specially designed proforma was utilized for collection of data with the approval of ethical committee and patient consent. Results: A female preponderance (80%). Decrease in appetite with increased cravings for sugars and poor oral hygiene practices were observed in study group, which contributed to their deteriorated periodontal conditions and increased caries experience. Range of subjective symptoms showing significant association with depressive symptoms (z value > 1.96) was observed, which include dry mouth, halitosis, temporomandibular disorders, difficulty in swallowing and speech, chronic pains, and altered taste sensation, whereas control group lacked such symptoms. Conclusion: In this study, we have found a significant association between emotional state and oral health; therefore, dentists who are cognizant of signs and symptoms of depressive disorders have an opportunity to recognize patients and make a referral to psychiatrist for confirmation of diagnosis and treatment.
  - 2,733 298