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   2014| March  | Volume 3 | Issue 5  
    Online since March 10, 2014

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Mounting media: An overview
Shamala Ravikumar, R Surekha, Rooban Thavarajah
March 2014, 3(5):1-8
Histological sections, which need to be examined for any length of time or to be stored must be mounted under a cover-slip. There are various types of mounting media available both commercially and also are prepared in one's own laboratory for mounting tissue sections. Some types of mounting media harden to hold the coverslip firmly in place and other types use different solvents such as water, glycerin and xylene because the stains in the sample preparation are sensitive to particular solvent. In order to prevent the of immonoflurescent slides, few mounting media contain antifade reagents. As less emphasis is given in the literature on mounting media, an attempt is made to review, venture and summarize on various types of mounting media and their uses in routine histopathologically and immunochemical staining.
  92,169 5,693 8
Maxillary expansion by nickel titanium palatal expander in cleft palate patient
Parthasarathyraam Raju, P Bhattacharya, Ankur Gupta, Jaishree Garg, DK Agarwal
March 2014, 3(5):51-54
Transverse expansion of the maxilla has been used by orthodontists for more than 100 years to correct maxillary anomalies. Rapid mechanical maxillary expansion procedures as presently employed, utilize large loads designed to produce a maximal skeletal repositioning with a minimum of individual tooth movement whereas tandem-loop nickel titanium NiTi, temperature-activated palatal expander with the ability to produce light, continuous pressure on the midpalatal suture. This case report describes the management of a 15-year-old girl with repaired cleft lip and palate, skeletal class III which exhibited mild maxillary deficiency. Dental examination revealed class I molar relation with reverse overjet, bilateral posterior crossbite, and constricted maxillary arch. A combination of various radiographs was used to diagnose and plan the treatment for maxillary expansion. The expander was assembled with bands as one unit and secured with elastic modules. During the 3 months study period, no other treatment was performed. An increase of 4 mm in intermolar width, 2 mm in intercanine width, and 4 mm in interpremolar width was achieved. The NiTi expander provides a viable alternative to rapid expansion for correction of transverse discrepancies.
  6,620 710 1
Evaluation of thickness of hybrid layer and length of resin tags of three adhesives to the root canal dentin: An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study
Sowmya Kallepalli, Shreemoy Dash, Sujatha Gopal, N.B.P. Surya Kumari
March 2014, 3(5):17-22
Objectives: This present study was done to evaluate the resin-dentin interface of three adhesive systems used for bonding the root canal under scanning electron microscopic (SEM). Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction apical preparation done up to 60 no. K-file and obturated with cold lateral compaction of gutta-percha and resin sealer (AH Plus). The specimens were then randomly divided into four groups of 15 teeth each. Group I-"Etch and rinse" adhesive system Group II-"Self-etch" adhesive system Group III-"Resin modified glass ionomer" adhesive system Group IV-"No adhesive system" used (control). All the adhesive systems were light cured then fiber posts were luted with dual cure resin cement and the specimens were prepared for SEM examination at magnifications ×1500 and ×5000 at coronal, middle and apical thirds of root canal. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference test. Group I showed highly statistical significant difference when compared with other groups. Conclusion: Maximum thickness of hybrid layer and long resin tags were shown by etch and rinse adhesives followed by self-etch adhesives.
  3,692 332 -
Comparison of β-tricalcium phosphate and autogenous bone graft with bioabsorbable membrane and autogenous bone graft in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: A clinico-radiographic study
Killi Venkata Prabhakara Rao, Kamlesh Bari, Narendra Reddy Motakatla, Tanuja Penmatsa
March 2014, 3(5):28-36
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare clinically and radiographically, the regenerative potential of β- tricalcium phosphate and autogenous bone graft with a bioabsorbable membrane and autogenous bone graft in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 sites from 12 patients showing bilateral or contralateral intrabony defects were selected and randomly divided into experimental site A (CERASORB® + autogenous bone graft) and experimental site B (BIOMEND + autogenous bone graft) by using the split mouth design. Clinical parameters like plaque index, was recorded at 1, 3, 6, 12 months and probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival recession were recorded at baseline, 6 and 12 months along with radiographs to evaluate defect fill, change in alveolar crest height and percentage of defect fill. Statistical Analysis: For intragroup variations-Student paired t-test, for comparison between the two groups-unpaired t-test and for the comparison of plaque index at different time intervals-Wilcoxon matched pairs test were used. Results: Both groups showed clinically and statistically significant reduction in PPD and gain in CAL with no statistical significance. Radiographically, in site A there was significant defect fill of 69.58% and 79.24% at 6 and 12 months. In site B, a defect fill of 71.29% and 82.77% was seen at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: Both groups showed the potential of enhancing the periodontal regeneration; however, on comparison between the two groups, the results obtained of the BIOMEND + autogenous bone graft group were slightly better, although statistically not significant.
  3,253 422 -
Evaluation of the influence of serum and salivary fluoride levels on periodontal disease status in endemic fluorosis patients
Harinath Reddy Singam, Uttam Akula, Sunil Kumar Palakuru, Raja Babu Palaparthi, Vidya Sagar Sisinty, Vikram Reddy Guntakalla
March 2014, 3(5):9-12
Background: The major determinant of the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis has been shown to be the concentration fluoride in the water consumed, but limited studies are available evaluating the effects of fluoride concentration on periodontal disease status. Aims: The aim of this study is to estimate the levels of fluoride in saliva, serum and in ground water of the villages where the subjects hail from and to correlate the levels of fluoride in serum and saliva to the periodontal disease severity. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects selected for the study are divided into two groups. Group A (test group) consisted of dental subjects diagnosed with dental fluorosis and periodontitis. Group B (control group) consisted of 20 non-fluorosed subjects. Assesment of fluoride in saliva and serum has been done by ion selective electrode method. The periodontal status was measured using the community periodontal index and clinical attachment level? Scores and were compared between the groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation of altered fluoride levels in serum and saliva to the periodontal disease severity was done using the Pearson correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance was used for inter group comparison. Results and Conclusions: No correlation was found between salivary and fluoride levels and the periodontal disease severity. However, mean salivary fluoride levels were found to significantly influence the dental fluorosis severity.
  3,281 279 -
Estimation of salivary immunoglobulin A levels in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients before and after phase I periodontal therapy
Kalakonda Butchibabu, Mythili Swaminathan, Senthil Kumar, Pradeep Koppolu, Kotha Kiran, Tupili Muralikrishna
March 2014, 3(5):23-27
Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the saliva of healthy controls and patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 male adult patients, of 20-50 age group who were grouped into three different groups viz. Group A (healthy subjects), Group B (Gingivitis), Group C (Periodontitis) based on clinical parameters. The clinical parameters including plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), Russell's periodontal index (PI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and serum IgA levels were recorded at baseline in Group A and at baseline and after 4 weeks in Group B and C. Levels of salivary IgA were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) technique after collecting 5 ml of unstimulated pooled saliva from patients in two different samples. Results: There was a significant reduction in salivary IgA levels, PlI, GI and PPD after phase I periodontal therapy in Group B and C; whereas a decrease in Russell's PI and gain in the CAL after phase I periodontal therapy were not statistically significant in Group C (periodontitis) patients. Salivary IgA levels, PlI, GI, and Russell's PI were significantly lower in the Group A (control) patients compared with Group B (gingivitis) and Group C (periodontitis) patients. Conclusion: Our study showed increased levels of salivary IgA in patients with periodontal disease compared with the healthy controls. The less severe the periodontal involvement, the more dependable was the reduction in IgA concentration following phase I periodontal therapy.
  3,007 317 1
Prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillectomy patient with telescopic cast partial denture
Prakash Manne, Suresh Babu Muvva, Srujana Zakkula, Jyothi Atla
March 2014, 3(5):55-58
Surgical management of Benign or Malignant neoplasm, congenital malformations, maxillofacial trauma or neuromuscular disease would result in maxillofacial defects. The size and location of these defects influence the degree of impairment and difficulty in prosthetic rehabilitation. Lack of support, retention, and stability of the prosthesis are some of the common problems in maxillectomy patients. Apart from these, social integration also becomes difficult as the quality of their lives is altered. Retention of partial denture prosthesis in rehabilitation of maxillectomy patient has been an enigma for prosthodontist. However, a well-planned prosthesis fabricated in accordance to the designing principles, reinforced by knowledge and skill of the prosthodontist would result in prosthesis with improved retention and stability. This case report presents management of a female patient with hemimaxillectomy using a telescopic cast partial denture treatment modality that resulted in enhanced quality of life with optimal aesthetics and functional adequacy.
  2,819 368 -
Mandibular second molar with five canals
Hari Kumar Vemisetty, Venkata Ravichandra Polavarapu, Kavitha Anantula, Ramkiran Dandolu
March 2014, 3(5):43-46
A unique case of a mandibular second molar with five canals is described. Recent literature pertaining to an unusual root canal morphological structure is reviewed and a recommendation is made for a complete and thorough examination of the chamber floor for even seemingly straight forward and simple non-surgical endodontic cases for a successful endodontic treatment.
  2,949 217 -
Prevalence of oral potentially malignant and malignant lesions at a tertiary level hospital in Hyderabad, India
Shyam Naragani Durga Venkata Naga, Kiran Kumar Gundamaraju, Sridhar Reddy Bujunuru, Prasad Navakoti, Lalith Prakash Chandra Kantheti, Chandrashekar Poosarla
March 2014, 3(5):13-16
Background: To study the prevalence of potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions in Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: An institutional retrospective study of biopsies sent to the department of general pathology in Osmania General Hospital (OGH), Hyderabad. The data was collected year-wise for a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011 with reference to age, sex, site involved, and final diagnosis based on the histopathological findings. Results: A total of 1005 oral biopsies were reviewed. Of these, cases were categorized into benign, potentially malignant, and malignant. Buccal mucosa was the most frequently involved site followed by tongue. Lichen planus constituted the highest number of patients in potentially malignant group, while in malignant group, squamous cell carcinoma was most prevalent. Conclusion: This study showed that potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were widespread in the patients of this region.
  2,679 354 1
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case report
Thathekalva Sridhar, Sreeram Vsnkata Suman, Jayam Raviraj, Dirasantchu Suresh
March 2014, 3(5):47-50
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma, but is relatively uncommon in the head and neck area. This tumor is difficult to distinguish histologically from other sarcomas and carcinomas. The most reliable treatment for MFH is surgery. Prognosis is poor and recurrence and local metastasis are common. In comparison with MFH of the extremities and trunk, the 5-year survival rate for cases of this tumor in the head and neck region is low. It is important to consider MFH in the differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors because of its poor prognosis. We report such a rare case in the rare site of maxillofacial region.
  2,511 265 -
Periodontal health in type 2 diabetics
T Radhika, K Ranganathan
March 2014, 3(5):37-42
Background: Periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of diabetes in addition to other microvascular and macrovascular complications. Prevention and management of periodontitis is an important component in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and physicians treating patients with DM should be alert to recognize the signs of severe periodontitis and refer patients for appropriate management. The aim of this study was to estimate and to compare the periodontal status in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 adults, 100 with type 2 diabetes and 50 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 40-60 years, participated in the study. Diabetic status was determined by estimation of random non-fasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Periodontal health was assessed by simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S), Loe and Silness gingival index (GI) and community periodontal index (CPI). The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher exact test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The mean GI, mean OHI and mean CPI score were significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics. However, mean OHI was similar in controlled diabetics and non-diabetics. Mean CPI score was significantly increased in controlled diabetics compared to uncontrolled diabetics. Conclusion: Gingivitis, poor oral hygiene and periodontitis were more prevalent in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Presence of poor periodontal health in diabetics, in spite of similar oral hygiene measures suggest the possibility of altered host response in periodontal tissues in these patients.
  2,356 225 1